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Table 1 Prevalence of poor self-perceived health by various factors according to welfare state, country, and sex

From: Informal employment and poor self-perceived health in Latin America and the Caribbean: a gender-based comparison between countries and welfare states in a pooled analysis of 176,786 workers

    Statalist countries Familialist countries
    Argentina Brazil Chile Costa Rica Mexico Panama Colombia Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Perú
    2018 2013 (2015-16) 2018 2012 2018 2017 2012 2018 2018 2018 2018 2015
Women              
  Informality              
   Formal 14.9 (13.4-16.5) 16.0 (15.1-17.0) 20.6 (16.2-25.5) 26.0 (19-34.2) 19.7 (14.7-25.6) 22.8 (18-28.2) 10.7 (9.2-12.4) 31.1 (29.0-33.2) 17.8 (11-26.5) 15.0 (7.4-26.2) 35.2 (24-47.7) 32.2 (24.5-40.9) 34.1 (28.7-39.8)
   Informal 24.1 (21.1-27.4) 30.5 (29.6-31.4) 37.9 (30.7-45.6) 30.0 (22.5-38.4) 30.8 (23.3-39.1) 38.3 (28.4-49.1) 23.8 (22-25.6) 42.8 (41.3-44.3) 33.6 (29.1-38.3) 19.9 (15.9-24.6) 44.3 (39.1-49.5) 46.9 (41.4-52.5) 47.3 (44.1-50.5)
  Age, years              
   < 25 11.9 (8.2-16.5) 14.5 (13.2-16.0) 4.5 (1.0-13.1) 11.8 (3.9-26.5) 10.7 (4.6-20.8) 14.0 (5.1-29.3) 10.4 (7.8-13.4) 27.1 (24.6-29.8) 11.6 (5.3-21.6) 15.3 (9.6-22.9) 35.4 (24.2-48.1) 27.5 (17.7-39.4) 29.3 (24.3-34.6)
   25-44 14.4 (12.7-16.3) 21.1 (20.3-22.0) 22.7 (18.4-27.5) 21.1 (14.4-29.3) 20.6 (15.5-26.5) 27.8 (21.2-35.1) 13.7 (12.1-15.3) 37.0 (35.4-38.6) 26.2 (20.9-32.1) 15.3 (10.8-20.7) 38.6 (33-44.3) 41.7 (35.6-48.1) 39.0 (35-43)
   45-64 23.0 (20.4-25.7) 36.7 (35.3-38.2) 37.9 (32.5-43.6) 41.1 (31.6-51.1) 38.0 (27.4-49.6) 38.8 (28.4-50.1) 27.6 (25-30.3) 48.3 (45.9-50.7) 35.8 (28.4-43.8) 33.4 (24.3-43.6) 56.3 (48.5-63.8) 59.1 (50.4-67.3) 55.1 (49-61)
   >65 28.7 (22.2-36) 45.3 (39.9-50.8) 39.1 (23.4-56.7) 45.6 (25.2-67.2) 85.7 (49.9-98.4) 71.8 (40.3-92.1) 42 (33.9-50.4) 61.4 (53.9-68.5) 51.8 (38.7-64.8) 35.8 (18.7-56.2) 78.3 (58.6-91.3) 70.9 (51.9-85.5) 87.8 (79.4-93.6)
  Education level             
   Low 29.0 (25.7-32.4) 41.1 (39.7-42.6) 36.4 (29.3-44.1) 34.6 (24.5-45.8) 44.3 (34.3-54.7) 55.2 (35.7-73.6) 34.1 (30.7-37.6) 48.0 (46.1-49.9) 39.3 (32.3-46.6) 22.5 (16.8-29.1) 55.4 (48.3-62.4) 51.5 (44.8-58.2) 64.5 (59.2-69.6)
   Intermediate 16.4 (14.3-18.7) 21.9 (20.9-23.0) 26.8 (22.1-31.8) 25.5 (18.5-33.6) 19.6 (14.3-25.8) 24.9 (18.6-32.2) 18.5 (16.5-20.6) 39.3 (37.4-41.3) 24.8 (20.1-30.1) 17.2 (11.8-23.8) 31.0 (24.6-37.9) 37.1 (29.4-45.3) 39.7 (35.8-43.8)
   High 8.7 (7.1-10.6) 12.9 (12.0-13.8) 19.3 (13.9-25.7) 20.5 (11.6-32.5) 9.9 (4.5-18.4) 25.3 (18.1-33.8) 10.3 (8.8-11.9) 26.1 (23.8-28.5) 24.3 (14.6-36.5) 12.4 (5.9-22.3) 19.8 (11.1-31.6) 31.7 (22.4-42.3) 32.8 (27.9-38)
  Occupational category             
   Skilled non-manual   14.5 (13.4-15.6) 20.0 (14.5-26.5) 14.2 (7.2-24.6) 6.7 (1.9-16.7) 24.9 (17.2-34) 10.6 (8.7-12.8) 25.8 (22.9-28.9) 35.9 (18-57.4) 13.5 (5.6-26.4) 36.6 (24.1-50.6) 30.0 (18.6-43.7) 28.1 (22.2-34.7)
   Non-skilled non-manual   23.0 (22.0-24.1) 29.0 (22.8-35.9) 28.4 (23-34.3) 16.3 (7.6-29.3) 23.6 (18.3-29.7) 20.1 (18.4-21.9) 39.8 (37.8-41.7) 26.9 (22.9-31.2) 16.1 (12-20.9) 42.9 (36-50) 36.7 (27.9-46.3) 41.5 (37.6-45.3)
   Skilled manual   36.1 (33.8-38.4) 29.4 (16.0-46.3) 32.3 (20.1-46.6) 19.0 (11.8-28.4) 43.6 (25.3-63.3) 28.3 (24.1-32.7) 42.3 (39.9-44.7) 33.3 (25.9-41.5) 27.3 (18.5-37.7) 43.9 (35.8-52.3) 45.3 (38.4-52.3) 52.3 (43.1-61.5)
   Non-skilled manual   36.4 (34.8-38.0) 31.4 (23.9-39.7) 27.6 (15.5-42.9) 33.1 (26.2-40.6) 35.8 (22.1-51.5) 19.1 (11.4-29.3) 43.7 (41.3-46.1) 41.3 (32.4-50.6) 13.4 (5.5-26.5) 44.6 (32.7-57) 46 (37-55.2) 57.8 (52-63.5)
Men              
  Informality              
   Formal 12.1 (10.7-13.6) 13.3 (12.5-14.2) 9.6 (6.8-13.1) 19.4 (13.7-26.2) 15.0 (11.7-18.8) 22.2 (17.3-27.9) 7.2 (6.2-8.5) 28.7 (27.1-30.2) 13.6 (6.9-23.3) 28.0 (18.8-38.9) 25.2 (17.4-34.4) 44.8 (35.2-54.7) 29.7 (25.6-34)
   Informal 19.8 (17.3-22.4) 26.2 (25.5-26.9) 20.8 (14.6-28.2) 35.6 (26.3-45.9) 34.7 (29.2-40.6) 23.4 (17.7-29.8) 17.7 (16.4-19.1) 35.0 (33.8-36.1) 29.3 (22.6-36.6) 23.8 (19.6-28.3) 46.8 (42.1-51.6) 49.1 (43.8-54.4) 37.6 (34.4-40.8)
  Age, years              
   < 25 8.1 (5.4-11.7) 11.6 (10.6-12.7) 6.4 (1.9-15.9) 16.4 (6.1-33.5) 18.5 (12.3-26.2) 11.9 (5.3-22.3) 5.6 (4-7.6) 22.4 (20.7-24.2) 11.7 (3.7-26.9) 18.5 (11.4-27.8) 19.0 (10.6-30.3) 35.5 (23.3-49.2) 20.6 (16.2-25.5)
   25-44 10.5 (9-12.2) 17.5 (16.8-18.2) 9.7 (6.7-13.5) 16.6 (10.6-24.4) 17.0 (13.4-21.1) 16.3 (11.6-21.9) 9.3 (8.2-10.6) 31.3 (30.0-32.5) 21.2 (14.2-29.7) 17.5 (12.9-23) 38.8 (33.2-44.7) 45.1 (38.9-51.4) 29.7 (26.1-33.5)
   45-64 22.8 (20.3-25.5) 33.0 (31.9-34.2) 19.8 (15.7-24.5) 35.9 (26.5-46.2) 36.2 (28.9-44) 32.0 (24.2-40.7) 18.9 (17.1-20.8) 42.5 (40.6-44.4) 26.2 (16.9-37.6) 32.6 (25.2-40.7) 61.4 (54.8-67.7) 60.4 (52.3-68.1) 46.4 (41.1-51.6)
   >65 20.4 (15.2-26.4) 43.4 (39.8-47.1) 35.6 (23.4-49.5) 35.5 (16.6-58.8) 46.4 (29.1-64.5) 57.6 (40-73.8) 35.2 (30.4-40.3) 53.4 (48.6-58.1) 46.0 (28.2-64.6) 49.8 (34-65.7) 75.2 (64.8-83.8) 76 (57.9-88.9) 55.5 (46.7-64.1)
  Education level             
   Low 22.1 (19.8-24.5) 32.2 (31.6-32.9) 22.5 (16.6-29.5) 32.1 (24-41.1) 39.2 (31.7-47.1) 38.7 (29.1-48.9) 25.0 (22.8-27.2) 42.9 (41.5-44.3) 32.5 (23.1-43.2) 31.2 (25.6-37.3) 53.7 (48.5-58.8) 58.7 (51.6-65.6) 51.0 (45.3-56.8)
   Intermediate 10.8 (9-12.7) 16.3 (15.5-17.0) 15.7 (12.2-19.8) 18.6 (12.1-26.9) 20.7 (16.8-25) 16.1 (11.9-21.2) 10.7 (9.4-12) 29.5 (28.2-30.9) 23.1 (16.2-31.3) 16.0 (11-22.3) 24.2 (17.3-32.4) 44.0 (36.1-52.1) 33.6 (30.1-37.2)
   High 7.0 (5.2-9.2) 31.8 (30.8-32.8) 6.0 (3.2-10.2) 9.6 (3.5-20.6) 10.9 (6.5-17) 16.6 (9.9-25.4) 5.8 (4.6-7.1) 20.3 (18.2-22.5) 9.9 (3-23.5) 7.5 (2.2-18.6) 27.3 (16.2-41.1) 33.0 (24.9-42) 24.8 (20.7-29.4)
  Occupational category             
   Skilled non-manual   12.7 (11.8-13.7) 8.1 (4.6-13.2) 13.9 (6.4-25.6) 18.2 (11.2-27.2) 16.9 (8.6-28.9) 6.3 (4.7-8.2) 20.5 (17.9-23.3) 11.7 (3.1-29.4) 6.7 (2-16.6) 24.1 (14.2-36.7) 38.4 (27.4-50.4) 24.7 (19.8-30.1)
   Non-skilled non-manual   20.3 (19.1-21.5) 7.6 (3.1-15.5) 17.4 (12.1-23.9) 16.2 (8.9-26.2) 25.4 (17.4-34.9) 11.3 (9.6-13.2) 29.6 (27.5-31.7) 32.4 (24.1-41.7) 13.1 (8.3-19.3) 34.0 (25.6-43.3) 45.0 (39.3-50.7) 29.6 (25.1-34.5)
   Skilled manual   25.7 (24.8-26.6) 19.7 (14.9-25.3) 33.7 (25.6-42.6) 28.4 (22.3-35.3) 24.1 (18.9-30) 19.9 (17.9-22) 35.6 (34.3-36.9) 25.5 (18.5-33.6) 30.0 (24.5-35.9) 47.1 (41.6-52.6) 59.9 (49.6-69.5) 40.9 (36.8-45.1)
   Non-skilled manual   30.3 (28.8-31.9) 23.1 (16.2-31.4) 18.9 (10.1-31.2) 22.5 (18.2-27.4) 20.1 (11.7-31.2) 13.5 (11.7-15.4) 38.3 (36.5-40.1) 32.7 (16.6-52.8) 23.4 (11.7-39.3) 45.6 (34.5-57.1) 39.7 (28.3-52.1) 42.8 (35.6-50.2)
  1. Data are given as prevalence (95% confidence interval). *Prevalence of informality adjusted by age, education level, and social occupational class