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Table 2 Correlates of (dis)continuity of routine MCVs across the antenatal through to postnatal period in Nepal, NDHS 2016 (N=1,978)

From: Universal coverage of the first antenatal care visit but poor continuity of care across the maternal and newborn health continuum among Nepalese women: analysis of levels and correlates

Social determinants Had no or less than 4ANC visits (ARR; 95% CI) Had 4ANC visits but no ID (ARR; 95% CI) Had 4ANC visits and ID but no PNC visit (ARR;95% CI)
Structural    
Wealth status    
Upper (60%) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Lower (40%) 2.39 (1.63, 3.51) *** 2.82 (1.88, 4.22) *** 0.93 (0.59, 1.48)
Ethnicity    
Advantaged 1.00 1.00 1.00
Disadvantaged 1.47 (0.79, 2.71) 1.54 (1.05, 2.26) * 1.28 (0.82, 1.98)
Maternal occupation    
Agriculture 0.79 (0.56, 1.11) 1.51 (1.04, 2.19) * 0.87 (0.59, 1.29)
Housewife 1.00 1.00 1.00
Working paid 0.64 (0.35, 1.15) 1.22 (0.70, 2.13) 1.08 (0.62, 1.90)
Maternal education    
Higher 1.00 1.00 1.00
Illiterate 2.65 (1.72, 4.08) *** 1.39 (0.93, 2.08) 1.21 (0.72, 2.02)
Primary 2.41 (1.62, 3.57) *** 1.92 (1.26, 2.93) ** 1.20 (0.74, 1.93)
Intermediary
Language    
Nepali 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maithili 1.31 (0.57, 3.00) 1.36 (0.6, 3.11) 0.71 (0.29, 1.77)
Bhojpuri 3.28 (1.26, 8.58) * 0.97 (0.35, 2.68) 1.06 (0.44, 2.57)
Others 1.52 (0.81, 2.84) 0.89 (0.55, 1.42) 0.66 (0.41, 1.05)
Province    
One 1.00 1.00 1.00
Two 1.73 (0.93, 3.21) 1.34 (0.67, 2.71) 2.19 (0.89, 5.42)
Bagmati 1.31 (0.68, 2.54) 0.75 (0.41, 1.35) 1.14 (0.57, 2.27)
Gandaki 1.45 (0.79, 2.68) 0.47 (0.23, 0.94) * 0.95 (0.46, 1.97)
Lumbini 1.10 (0.61, 1.96) 1.09 (0.67, 1.76) 1.93 (0.98, 3.82)
Karnali 4.08 (2.30, 7.21) *** 1.32 (0.65, 2.68) 2.24 (1.07, 4.71) *
Sudurpaschim 0.56 (0.29, 1.07) 0.51 (0.25, 1.02) 3.57 (1.87, 6.81) ***
Residence    
Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00
Rural 1.35 (0.95, 1.93) 1.91 (1.36, 2.69) *** 0.97 (0.64, 1.48)
Maternal age (in years)    
15-19 0.79 (0.52, 1.20) 0.63 (0.39, 0.99) * 1.24 (0.78, 1.95)
20-34 1.00 1.00 1.00
35 or above 0.55 (0.29, 1.04) 0.79 (0.35, 1.78) 1.66 (0.67, 4.11)
Birth order    
<4 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥4 2.15 (1.41, 3.30) *** 1.5 (0.98, 2.30) 0.52 (0.26, 1.06)
Media exposure    
Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00
No 1.81 (1.33, 2.46) *** 1.56 (1.13, 2.14) ** 1.01 (0.69, 1.50)
Last birth (index child)    
Wanted 1.00 1.00 1.00
Unwanted 2.11 (1.47, 3.02) *** 1.15 (0.76, 1.72) 1.10 (0.67, 1.82)
Health system
Perceived problem not having female providers    
No problem 1.00 1.00 1.00
Big problem 1.25 (0.89, 1.76) 1.46 (1.05, 2.04) * 1.64 (1.12, 2.39) *
Awareness on health mothers’ group    
Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00
No 1.53 (1.13, 2.07) ** 1.10 (0.79, 1.53) 1.06 (0.76, 1.46)
  1. *** p<0.001, ** p<0.01, * p<0.05. Results obtained from the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Determinants that had p<0.2 included in the final model adjusting for covariates listed in the table. The likelihood ratio of the reduced model with the full model was [chi-square=19.47; p=0. 0.555], and our model was the best fit. HWs: health workers, HMG: health mothers’ group, HF: health facility, ID: institutional delivery, ANC: antenatal care. The reference category of outcome variable was the completion of all three MCVs. Other languages include Tharu, Magar. ARR: Adjusted risk ratio.