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Table 3 Effects of FDI and trade on the prevalence of tobacco consumption (Robustness checks)

From: Effects of foreign direct investment and trade on the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Africa: a panel study

  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Prevalence of tobacco use Prevalence of tobacco use Prevalence of tobacco use Prevalence of tobacco use
L.Prevalence of tobacco use 0.975*** 0.963*** 0.962*** 0.994***
(0.0234) (0.00973) (0.0195) (0.0197)
Tobacco tax 0.00520 −0.00604* − 0.00135 − 0.00909
(0.00561) (0.00349) (0.0125) (0.00845)
L.Trade openness 0.167*    
(0.0845)    
Income 0.00760 0.0205* 0.0425* −0.00524
(0.00698) (0.0119) (0.0212) (0.0105)
Education 0.0138*** 0.0113*** 0.00298 −0.0112
(0.00299) (0.00260) (0.00826) (0.00771)
L.Imports   0.00733**   
  (0.00348)   
L.FDI inflows    −0.00727*  
   (0.00393)  
L.KOF trade globalisation index     0.0115**
    (0.00442)
L.Chinn-Ito index of capital openness     −0.0741*
    (0.0420)
Constant −1.688*** −1.046*** −0.0109 0.817
(0.204) (0.247) (0.723) (0.720)
Observations 216 216 217 217
Countries 31 31 31 31
Instruments 24 27 21 24
AR(2) −1.233 0.372 −1.097 −1.379
AR(2) p-value 0.218 0.710 0.273 0.168
Hansen 13.32 11.57 4.151 8.980
Hansen p-value 0.346 0.712 0.901 0.774
F stat 15,428.4 7834.9 2903.3 5706.0
F stat p-value 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
  1. Standard errors in parentheses; * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01; L. refers to the first lag of the respective variable; Year dummies are not reported for brevity; The null hypotheses of the Hansen and the AR (2) tests state the joint validity of the instruments and the absence of second-order serial correlation respectively [30, 32]