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Table 5 Country-wise analyses for high psychological distress, fear of COVID-19 and coping among the study participants

From: COVID-19: Factors associated with psychological distress, fear, and coping strategies among community members across 17 countries

Characteristics K-10 Score Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
Low (score 10-15) Moderate to Very High (score 16-50)
n % n % p ORs 95% CIs p AORs 95% CIs
Country of residence 2634   5846    
 Thailand 269 54.1 229 45.9 Ref Ref
 Hong Kong 256 46.1 299 53.9 0.011 1.37 1.08-1.75 <0.001 1.93 1.37-2.73
 Indonesia 223 41.2 318 58.8 <0.001 1.68 1.31-2.14 0.071 1.44 0.97-2.15
 Oman 180 41.2 257 58.8 <0.001 1.68 1.30-2.17 <0.001 2.20 1.50-3.25
 Nepal 119 38.3 192 61.7 <0.001 1.90 1.42-2.52 0.253 1.28 0.84-1.95
 Malaysia 273 37.9 447 62.1 <0.001 1.92 1.53-2.42 Not included in multivariate model
 Australia 203 37.5 339 62.5 <0.001 1.96 1.53-2.51 Not included in multivariate model
 Libya 38 33.3 76 66.7 <0.001 2.35 1.53-3.60 <0.001 3.54 1.91-6.56
 Kuwait 132 31.6 285 68.4 <0.001 2.54 1.93-3.33 <0.001 3.06 2.05-4.58
 Bangladesh 284 30.1 644 69.4 <0.001 2.67 2.12-3.31 Not included in multivariate model
 Pakistan 121 28.9 297 71.1 <0.001 2.88 2.19-3.80 0.105 1.40 0.93-2.11
 Saudi Arabia 225 28 578 71.9 <0.001 3.02 2.38-3.81 <0.001 2.82 1.99-4.01
 UAE 89 21.3 328 78.6 <0.001 4.32 3.23-5.80 <0.001 3.68 2.31-5.86
 Jordan 80 14.9 458 85.1 <0.001 6.72 5.01-9.04 <0.001 6.83 4.05-11.5
 Syria 53 13 355 87.0 <0.001 7.87 5.61-11.0 <0.001 6.05 3.59-10.2
 Palestine 50 12 367 88.0 <0.001 8.62 6.11-12.2 <0.001 4.80 2.87-8.02
 Egypt 39 9.4 377 90.6 <0.001 11.4 7.81-16.5 <0.001 9.43 5.33-16.7
Characteristics FCV-19S Score Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
Low (score 7-21) High (score 22-35)
n % n % p ORs 95% CIs p AORs 95% CIs
Country of residence 6420   2066    
 Libya 104 91.2 10 8.8 Ref Ref
 Saudi Arabia 714 88.9 89 11.1 0.458 1.30 0.65-2.57 0.669 0.85 0.40-1.82
 Thailand 427 85.7 71 14.3 0.123 1.73 0.86-3.46 0.937 1.03 0.47-2.28
 Kuwait 347 83.2 70 16.8 0.037 2.1 1.04-4.22 0.395 1.40 0.64-3.07
 Oman 351 80.3 86 19.7 0.008 2.55 1.28-5.08 0.044 2.23 1.02-4.88
 Jordan 429 79.7 109 20.3 0.005 2.64 1.34-5.23 0.477 0.74 0.33-1.70
 Nepal 248 79.7 63 20.3 0.007 2.64 1.31-5.35 0.057 2.16 0.98-4.80
 Syria 324 79.6 83 20.4 0.006 2.67 1.33-5.32 0.455 1.35 0.62-2.93
 Palestine 330 79.1 87 20.8 0.004 2.74 1.37-5.47 0.844 1.09 0.49-2.42
 UAE 320 76.7 97 23.3 0.001 3.15 1.59-6.27 0.561 1.27 0.58-2.81
 Indonesia 405 74.8 136 25.1 <0.001 3.50 1.77-6.88 0.006 2.86 1.35-6.08
 Malaysia 525 72.9 195 27.1 <0.001 3.87 1.98-7.54 Not included in multivariate model
 Egypt 288 69.2 128 30.8 <0.001 4.62 2.34-9.14 0.055 2.13 0.98-4.62
 Hong Kong 382 68.8 173 31.2 <0.001 4.71 2.40-9.24 0.003 3.21 1.47-7.01
 Australia 374 68.1 175 31.8 <0.001 4.87 2.49-9.54 Not included in multivariate model
 Pakistan 281 67.2 137 32.8 <0.001 5.07 2.57-10.0 0.002 3.41 1.58-7.33
 Bangladesh 571 61.5 357 38.4 <0.001 6.50 3.35-12.6 Not included in multivariate model
Characteristics BRCS Score Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
Low (score 4-13) Medium to High (score 14-20)
n % n % p ORs 95% CIs p AORs 95% CIs
Country of residence 3665   4815    
 Australia 534 97.3 15 2.7 Ref Ref
 Libya 70 61.9 43 38.1 <0.001 21.86 11.6-41.4 Not included in multivariate model
 Pakistan 221 52.8 197 47.1 <0.001 31.73 18.3-54.9 0.210 1.40 0.83-2.36
 Jordan 252 46.8 286 53.2 <0.001 40.40 23.5-69.4 0.014 1.99 1.15-3.43
 Egypt 191 45.9 225 54.1 <0.001 41.93 24.2-72.6 0.003 2.28 1.33-3.88
 Saudi Arabia 354 44.1 448 55.8 <0.001 45.05 26.5-76.7 0.016 1.84 1.12-3.02
 Kuwait 183 43.8 234 56.1 <0.001 45.52 26.3-78.8 0.009 2.01 1.20-3.40
 Bangladesh 398 42.8 530 57.1 <0.001 47.41 27.9-80.5 Not included in multivariate model
 Hong Kong 230 41.4 325 58.5 <0.001 50.30 29.3-86.3 0.002 2.29 1.34-3.91
 UAE 151 36.5 262 63.4 <0.001 61.77 35.6-107 <0.001 2.64 1.53-4.55
 Palestine 152 36.5 264 63.4 <0.001 61.83 35.7-107 <0.001 2.90 1.68-4.99
 Thailand 175 35.1 323 64.9 <0.001 65.71 38.1-113 0.004 2.18 1.29-3.70
 Malaysia 251 34.8 469 65.1 <0.001 66.52 38.9-114 Not included in multivariate model
 Oman 137 31.4 300 68.7 <0.001 77.96 44.9-135 <0.001 3.80 2.21-6.54
 Nepal 97 31.2 214 68.8 <0.001 78.54 44.6-138 <0.001 3.45 1.99-5.98
 Indonesia 156 28.8 385 71.2 <0.001 87.86 50.9-152 <0.001 4.16 2.51-6.92
 Syria 113 27.7 295 72.3 <0.001 92.93 53.2-162 <0.001 4.94 2.89-8.46
  1. Adjusted for: age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, living status, place of birth, country, education, employment status, employment stress, healthcare worker, financial impact, contact with COVID-19 case, experience due to COVID-19 and self-identification as a patient