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Table 3 Predictors for fear of COVID-19 among the study participants (based on the FCV-19S score)

From: COVID-19: Factors associated with psychological distress, fear, and coping strategies among community members across 17 countries

Characteristics Low (score 7-21) High (score 22-35) Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
n % n % p ORs 95% CIs p AORs 95% CIs
Age groups 5710 75.20 1886 24.8       
 18-29 years 2777 75.8 883 24.1 Ref Ref
 30-59 years 2661 73.8 942 26.1 0.047 1.11 1.00-1.24 0.004 1.35 1.10-1.64
 ≥60 years 272 81.6 61 18.3 0.017 0.71 0.53-0.94 0.184 1.40 0.86-2.30
Gender 6383 75.6 2055 24.4       
 Male 2305 76.8 695 23.20 Ref Ref
 Female 4078 74.9 1360 25.1 0.059 1.11 0.99-1.23 0.001 1.51 1.25-1.83
Born in the same country of residence 6365 75.5 2059 24.4       
 No 933 72.4 355 27.6 Ref Ref
 Yes 5432 76.1 1704 23.8 0.005 0.82 0.72-0.94 0.001 0.66 0.51-0.85
Living status 6354 75.6 2050 24.4       
 Live without family members 1322 69.6 577 30.4 Ref Ref
 Live with family members 5032 77.4 1473 22.6 <0.001 0.67 0.6-0.75 0.431 1.10 0.86-1.41
Highest educational/vocational qualification 6359 75.6 2052 24.4       
 Primary/Grade 1 to 6 47 79.6 12 20.3 Ref Ref
 Secondary/Higher Secondary/Grade 7 to 12 1176 76.3 366 23.7 0.547 1.22 0.64-2.32 0.569 1.41 0.44-4.55
 Certificate/Diploma/Trade qualifications 626 71.8 245 28.1 0.198 1.53 0.8-2.93 0.298 1.87 0.57-6.09
 Bachelor/Masters/PhD 4510 75.9 1429 24.1 0.506 1.24 0.66-2.35 0.689 1.27 0.40-4.05
Current employment condition 6174 75.6 1994 24.4       
 Unemployed/Housewife/Home maker/Home duties (No source of income) 433 67.3 210 32.6 Ref Ref
 Jobs affected by COVID-19 (lost job/working hours reduced/afraid of job loss) 3304 80.1 821 19.9 <0.001 0.51 0.42-0.61 No estimate due to small number
 Have an income source (employed/Government benefits) 2437 71.7 963 28.3 0.026 0.81 0.68-0.98 0.588 1.05 0.87-1.27
Perceived distress due to change of employment status 5772 75.7 1847 24.2       
 A little to none 3767 80.1 939 19.9 Ref Ref
 Moderate to a great deal 2005 68.8 908 31.2 <0.001 1.82 1.63-2.02 <0.001 1.52 1.27-1.82
Improved working situation due to change of employment status 4570 78.5 1251 21.5       
 A little to none 3566 79.7 906 20.3 Ref Ref
 Moderate to a great deal 1004 74.4 345 25.6 <0.001 1.35 1.17-1.56 0.401 1.08 0.9-1.32
Self-identification as a frontline or essential service worker 6398 75.7 2052 24.3       
 No 3839 76.3 1191 23.7 Ref Ref
 Yes 2559 74.8 861 25.2 0.115 1.08 0.99-1.2 0.001 1.47 1.20-1.82
Self-identification as a healthcare worker 4950 78.7 1339 21.3       
 No 2990 77.8 853 22.2 Ref Ref
 Yes, doctor 712 80.4 174 19.6 0.096 0.86 0.71-1.03 <0.001 0.55 0.41-0.76
 Yes, nurse 838 81.2 194 18.8 0.018 0.81 0.68-0.97 0.053 0.75 0.56-1.01
 Yes, other healthcare worker 410 77.6 118 22.4 0.937 1.01 0.81-1.26 0.131 0.79 0.58-1.07
COVID-19 impacted financial situation 6418 75.6 2066 24.4       
 No impact 3053 80.8 725 19.2 Ref Ref
 Yes, impacted positively 768 75.5 249 24.5 <0.001 1.37 1.16-1.61 0.075 1.29 0.98-1.70
 Yes, impacted negatively 2597 70.4 1092 29.6 <0.001 1.77 1.6-1.97 0.004 1.36 1.11-1.68
Affected by the change in financial situation 4813 78.6 1308 21.4     
 Not at all 1201 85.9 196 14 Ref Ref
 Unsure 724 79.4 188 20.6 <0.001 1.59 1.28-1.98 0.149 1.23 0.93-1.64
 Somewhat 2169 78.3 600 21.7 <0.001 1.69 1.42-2.02 0.033 1.32 1.02-1.08
 A great extent 719 68.9 324 31.1 <0.001 2.76 2.26-3.37 0.021 1.44 1.06-1.96
Co-morbidities 6345 75.7 2032 24.3       
 No 4645 78.1 1303 21.9 Ref Ref
 Psychiatric/Mental health problem 248 68.7 113 31.3 <0.001 1.62 1.29-2.05 0.984 1.00 0.64-1.60
 Other co-morbidities* 1452 70.2 616 29.8 <0.001 1.51 1.35-1.7 0.001 1.71 1.25-2.32
Co-morbidities 6059 76.1 1910 23.9       
 No 4645 78.1 1303 21.9 Ref Ref
 Single co-morbidity 1096 70.9 451 29.2 <0.001 1.47 1.29-1.66 0.021 0.69 0.51-0.95
 Multiple co-morbidities 318 67.1 156 32.9 <0.001 1.75 1.43-2.14 No estimate due to small number
Perceived status of own mental health 4950 78.7 1339 21.3       
 Poor to Fair 1190 67.9 563 32.1 Ref Ref
 Good to Excellent 3760 82.9 776 17.1 <0.001 0.44 0.39-0.5 <0.001 0.72 0.60-0.86
Smoking 6420 75.6 2065 24.3       
 Never smoker 5251 76.1 1647 23.8 Ref Ref
 Ever smoker (Daily/Non-daily/Ex) 1169 73.6 418 26.3 0.039 1.14 1.01-1.30 0.708 1.04 0.84-1.31
Increased smoking over the last 6 months 758 74.7 256 25.3       
 No 418 78.1 117 21.9 Ref Not included in multivariate model
 Yes 340 70.9 139 29 0.009 1.46 1.1-1.94
Current alcohol drinking (last 4 weeks) 6309 75.6 2035 24.4       
 No 5646 76.1 1776 23.9 Ref Ref
 Yes 663 71.9 259 28.1 0.006 1.24 1.07-1.45 0.038 1.33 1.02-1.73
Increased alcohol drinking over the last 6 months 658 72.1 255 27.9       
 No 511 79.7 130 20.3 Ref Not included in multivariate model
 Yes 147 54.1 125 45.9 <0.001 3.34 2.46-4.54
Contact with known/suspected case of COVID-19 6292 75.6 2031 24.4       
 No 3769 771 1117 22.9 Ref Ref
 Unsure 488 68.8 221 31.2 <0.001 1.53 1.29-1.82 0.006 1.41 1.10-1.80
 Yes, had indirect contact 722 75.8 230 24.2 0.384 1.07 0.92-1.26 0.713 1.04 0.86-1.35
 Yes, provided direct care 1313 73.9 463 26.1 0.007 1.19 1.04-1.35 0.782 0.97 0.76-1.23
Experience related to COVID-19 pandemic 6155 75.5 2000 24.5       
 No known exposure to COVID-19 4833 76.4 1490 23.6 Ref Ref
 Tested positive for COVID-19 391 79.2 103 20.8 0.170 0.85 0.68-1.07 0.175 0.80 0.57-1.11
 Tested negative for COVID-19 by self-isolated 791 69.8 342 30.2 <0.001 1.40 1.22-1.61 0.336 1.12 0.89-1.41
 Had recent overseas travel history and was in quarantine 140 68.3 65 31.7 0.007 1.51 1.12-2.03 0.808 0.93 0.54-1.61
Self-identification as a patient (visited a healthcare provider in the last 6 months) 6273 75.5 2031 24.5       
 No 4247 76.5 1308 23.6 Ref Ref
 Yes 2026 73.7 723 26.3 0.006 1.16 1.04-1.29 0.217 0.90 0.76-1.06
Healthcare service use in the last 6 months 1973 72.4 754 27.6       
 In-person visit to a healthcare provider 1413 74.5 483 25.5 Ref Ref
 Telehealth consultation/Use of national helpline 426 66.9 210 33 <0.001 1.44 1.19-1.75 Not included in multivariate model
 Used both services 134 68.7 61 31.3 0.079 1.33 0.97-1.83
Level of psychological distress (K10 categories) 6416 75.7 2063 24.3       
 Low (score 10-15) 2328 88.4 306 11.6 Ref Ref
 Moderate to Very High (score 16-50) 4088 69.9 1757 30.1 <0.001 3.26 2.87-3.72 <0.001 3.36 2.67-4.23
Level of coping (BRCS categories) 6418 75.7 2061 24.3       
 Low resilient copers (score 4-13) 2647 72.2 1018 27.8 Ref Ref
 Medium to high resilient copers (score 14-20) 3771 78.3 1043 21.7 <0.001 0.72 0.65-0.80 <0.001 0.74 0.63-0.87
Healthcare service use to overcome COVID-19 related stress in the last 6 months 6243 75.6 2020 24.5       
 No 5595 77.9 1587 22.1 Ref Ref
 Yes 648 59.9 433 40.1 <0.001 2.35 2.06-2.70 <0.001 2.42 1.96-3.01
  1. Adjusted for: age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, living status, place of birth, country, education, employment status, employment stress, healthcare worker, financial impact, contact with COVID-19 case, experience due to COVID-19 and self-identification as a patient