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Table 2 Predictors for psychological distress among the study participants (based on the K-10 score)

From: COVID-19: Factors associated with psychological distress, fear, and coping strategies among community members across 17 countries

Characteristics Low (score 10-15) Moderate to Very High (score 16-50) Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
n % n % p ORs 95% CIs p AORs 95% CIs
Age groups 2434 32.1 5157 67.9       
 18-29 years 775 21.1 2884 78.8 Ref Ref
 30-59 1429 39.7 2170 60.3 <0.001 0.41 0.37-0.45 <0.001 0.50 0.41-0.61
 ≥60 years 230 69.1 103 30.9 <0.001 0.12 0.08-0.15 <0.001 0.15 0.09-0.23
Gender 2622 31.1 5810 68.9       
 Male 1100 36.7 1898 63.3 Ref Ref
 Female 1522 28 3912 71.9 <0.001 1.50 1.36-1.64 0.003 1.31 1.09-1.57
Born in the same country of residence 2611 31 5807 68.9       
 No 421 32.7 864 67.2 Ref Ref
 Yes 2190 30.7 4943 69.3 0.118 1.06 0.96-1.18 0.193 1.18 0.92-1.52
Living status 2609 31.1 5790 68.9       
 Live without family members 608 32.1 1289 67.9 Ref Ref
 Live with family members 2001 30.9 4501 69.2 0.133 1.09 0.97-1.24 0.064 1.25 0.99-1.56
Highest educational/vocational qualification 2603 30.9 5803 69.03       
 Primary/Grade 1 to 6 20 33.9 39 66.1 Ref Ref
 Secondary/Higher Secondary/Grade 7 to 12 373 24.2 1168 75.8 0.100 1.61 0.91-2.83 0.375 0.53 0.13-2.14
 Certificate/Diploma/Trade qualifications 269 30.9 601 68.1 0.605 1.16 0.65-2.06 0.231 0.43 0.11-1.72
 Bachelor/Masters/PhD 1941 32.7 3995 67.3 0.848 1.06 0.61-1.84 0.247 0.44 0.11-1.75
Current employment condition 2565 31.4 5597 68.5       
 Unemployed/Housewife/Home maker/Home duties (No source of income) 242 37.6 401 62.4 Ref Ref
 Jobs affected by COVID-19 (lost job/working hours reduced/afraid of job loss) 1499 36.4 2623 63.6 0.481 1.06 0.89-1.26 No estimates due to small number
 Have an income source (employed/Government benefits) 824 24.3 2573 75.4 <0.001 1.88 1.58-2.25 0.003 1.35 1.10-1.63
Perceived distress due to change of employment status 2317 30.5 5300 69.6       
 A little to none 1735 36.8 2970 63.1 Ref Ref
 Moderate to a great deal 582 19.9 2330 80.01 <0.001 2.38 2.1-2.61 <0.001 1.56 1.29-1.90
Improved working situation due to change of employment status 1730 29.7 4092 70.3       
 A little to none 1373 30.6 3100 69.3 Ref Ref
 Moderate to a great deal 357 26.5 992 73.5 0.022 1.23 1.07-1.41 0.723 0.97 0.80-1.18
Self-identification as a frontline or essential service worker 2621 31.1 5823 68.9       
 No 1588 31.6 3437 68.4 Ref Ref
 Yes 1033 30.2 2386 69.7 0.084 1.07 0.98-1.19 0.830 0.98 0.79-1.21
Self-identification as a healthcare worker 1874 29.8 4416 70.2       
 No 1072 27.8 2771 72.1 Ref Ref
 Yes, doctor 261 29.4 626 70.6 0.291 0.92 0.78-1.08 0.028 1.43 1.04-1.97
 Yes, nurse 395 38.3 637 61.7 <0.001 0.63 0.54-0.72 0.375 1.13 0.86-1.5
 Yes, other healthcare worker 146 27.6 382 72.4 0.893 1.01 0.82-1.25 0.521 1.11 0.81-1.52
COVID-19 impacted financial situation 2634 31.1 5845 68.9       
 No impact 1479 39.2 2297 60.8 Ref Ref
 Yes, impacted positively 292 28.7 725 71.3 <0.001 1.59 1.37-1.86 0.330 1.14 0.88-1.48
 Yes, impacted negatively 863 23.4 2823 76.6 <0.001 2.10 1.89-2.32 0.770 1.03 0.84-1.27
Affected by the change in financial situation 1814 29.6 4308 70.4       
 Not at all 690 49.4 707 50.6 Ref Ref
 Unsure 268 29.4 644 70.6 <0.001 2.35 1.96-2.80 <0.001 1.69 1.32-2.16
 Somewhat 710 25.6 2060 74.4 <0.001 2.83 2.47-3.24 <0.001 1.64 1.32-2.03
 A great extent 146 14 897 86 <0.001 5.99 4.89-7.35 <0.001 2.36 1.72-3.23
Co-morbidities 2601 31.1 5770 68.9       
 No 1926 32.3 4020 67.6 Ref Ref
 Psychiatric/Mental health problem 31 8.7 327 91.3 <0.001 5.04 3.47-7.32 0.019 3.02 1.20-7.60
 Other co-morbidities* 644 31.2 1423 68.8 0.436 1.04 0.94-1.17 0.147 1.30 0.91-1.82
Co-morbidities 2465 30.9 5502 69.1       
 No 1926 32.4 4020 67.6 Ref Ref
 Single co-morbidity 411 26.6 1136 73.4 0.001 1.32 1.17-1.50 0.859 0.97 0.67-1.40
 Multiple co-morbidities 128 27 346 73 0.114 1.30 1.05-1.60 No estimates due to small number
Perceived status of own mental health 1874 29.8 4416 70.2       
 Poor to Fair 131 7.5 1622 92.5 Ref Ref
 Good to Excellent 1743 38.4 2794 61.6 <0.001 0.13 0.11-0.16 <0.001 0.17 0.13-0.22
Smoking 2634 31.1 5846 68.9       
 Never smoker 2226 32.3 4668 67.6 Ref Ref
 Ever smoker (Daily/Non-daily/Ex) 408 25.7 1178 74.3 <0.001 1.38 1.22-1.56 0.434 1.10 0.87-1.39
Increased smoking over the last 6 months 206 20.3 808 79.7       
 No 151 28.2 384 71.9 Ref Not included in multivariate model
 Yes 55 11.5 424 88.5 <0.000 3.03 2.16-4.25
Current alcohol drinking (last 4 weeks) 2583 30.9 5755 69.02       
 No 2314 31.2 5104 68.7 Ref Ref
 Yes 269 29.2 651 70.7 0.199 1.10 0.95-1.28 0.069 1.29 0.99-1.68
Increased alcohol drinking over the last 6 months 266 29.2 645 70.8       
 No 235 36.9 404 63.2 Ref Not included in multivariate model
 Yes 31 11.4 241 88.6 <0.001 4.52 3.01-6.80
Contact with known/suspected case of COVID-19 2574 30.9 5743 69.1       
 No 1754 35.9 3127 64.1 Ref Ref
 Unsure 141 19.9 567 80.1 <0.001 2.26 1.85-2.73 <0.001 1.80 1.36-2.40
 Yes, had indirect contact 223 23.4 729 76.5 <0.001 1.83 1.55-2.16 0.019 1.32 1.04-1.67
 Yes, provided direct care 456 25.6 1320 74.3 <0.001 1.63 1.44-1.85 0.814 1.03 0.81-1.30
Experience related to COVID-19 pandemic 2518 30.9 5631 69.1       
 No known exposure to COVID-19 2095 33.2 4224 66.8 Ref Ref
 Tested positive for COVID-19 124 25.2 369 74.8 <0.001 1.48 1.2-1.82 0.988 1.00 0.72-1.38
 Tested negative for COVID-19 by self-isolated 256 22.6 876 77.3 <0.001 1.69 1.45-1.97 0.086 1.24 0.97-1.58
 Had recent overseas travel history and was in quarantine 43 20.9 162 79.02 0.002 1.87 1.32-2.62 0.696 1.12 0.64-1.93
Self-identification as a patient (visited a healthcare provider in the last 6 months) 2579 31.1 5719 68.9       
 No 1945 35.1 3606 64.9 Ref Ref
 Yes 634 23.1 2113 76.9 <0.001 1.80 1.61-2.00 <0.001 1.67 1.40-1.99
Healthcare service use in the last 6 months 646 23.7 2079 76.3       
 In-person visit to a healthcare provider 493 26.1 1401 73.9 Ref Ref
 Telehealth consultation/Use of national helpline 120 18.9 516 81.1 <0.001 1.51 1.21-1.89 Not included in multivariate model
 Used both services 33 16.9 162 83.1 0.005 1.72 1.17-2.54
Level of fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S categories) 2634 31.1 5845 68.9       
 Low (score 7-21) 2328 36.3 4088 63.7 Ref Ref
 High (score 22-35) 306 14.8 1757 85.2 <0.001 3.27 2.87-3.73 <0.001 3.26 2.57-4.13
Level of coping (BRCS categories) 2633 31.1 5840 68.9       
 Low resilient copers (score 4-13) 1011 27.6 2648 72.4 Ref Ref
 Medium to high resilient copers (score 14-20) 1622 33.7 3192 66.3 <0.001 0.75 0.69-0.82 0.637 0.96 0.81-1.14
Healthcare service use to overcome COVID-19 related stress in the last 6 months 2560 31 5697 69       
 No 2422 33.7 4754 66.3 Ref Ref
 Yes 138 12.8 943 69 <0.001 3.48 2.89-4.19 <0.001 1.99 1.45-2.72
  1. Adjusted for: age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, living status, place of birth, country, education, employment status, employment stress, healthcare worker, financial impact, contact with COVID-19 case, experience due to COVID-19 and self-identification as a patient