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Table 2 Utilisation of better technical quality of routine MNH services stratified by independent variables in Nepal, 2015

From: Utilisation of quality antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services in Nepal: An analysis of Service Provision Assessment

Pregnant women attended HFs for their first ANC visit (N = 523) who received better quality ANC services (%) Postpartum women discharged from HFs (N = 309) who received better quality delivery and PNC services (%)
Determinants Categories Total frequency % of better quality p Determinants Categories Total frequency % of better quality p
Structural      Structural     
 Ethnicity Brahmin/Chhetri 103 63.8 0.022 Ethnicity Brahmin/Chhetri 155 57.1 < 0.001
Janajatis 155 51.9    Janajatis 66 58.9  
Madhesi 157 45.8    Madhesi 51 23.6  
Dalit 66 47.9    Dalit 37 40.4  
Muslims 43 27.1   Managed by Private 97 74.6  
 Education No schooling 155 36.4 0.001   Public 212 38.7 < 0.001
Up to 10 grades 216 61.7   Intermediary     
≥SLC 152 46.5   Province 1 24 42.3 < 0.001
 Managed by Private 73 30.7 < 0.001   2 46 11.2  
Public 450 52.9    3 110 69.0  
Intermediary       4 38 46.7  
 Province One 89 43.4 < 0.001   5 48 58.1  
Two 154 32.9    6 19 55.6  
Three 116 51.5    7 23 26.6  
Four 25 69.8   Women’s age (years) 15–19 36 44.5 0.013
Five 84 66.3    20–24 130 38.9  
Six 20 65.5    25–29 96 58.1  
Seven 35 72.1    ≥30 47 68.1  
 Waiting time Immediately 149 47.2   Companion in delivery No 93 55.5 0.32
Up to 30 min 251 52.2 0.427   Yes 216 47.6  
> 30 min 123 46.7   Health system     
 Region Mountain 16 53.9 0.117 HF capacity Low 123 59.9 0.160
Hill 172 57.9    Medium 105 45.4  
Terai 335 45.5    High 81 40.6  
 Women’s age (years) 15–19 120 53.8 0.782 Supervision of staff No 119 66.3 0.010
20–24 230 49.7    Yes 190 39.7  
25–29 118 44.7   HF meeting Never 47 53.5 0.812
≥30 55 52.8    Sometimes 50 55.0  
Health system       Monthly 211 48.0  
 HF capacity Low 175 40.2 0.036 Feedback Yes 249 55.2  
Medium 174 59.7    No 60 28.2  
High 174 48.6   QA activities No 214 45.3 0.120
 Facility types PHCCs and hospitals 303 49.1 0.782   Yes 95 60.5  
HPs and clinics 220 50.8   Aama program No 78 67.7 0.051
 Supervision of staff No 172 41.4 0.087   Yes 231 44.0  
Yes 351 54.0   Decision to seek care Late 25 60.3 0.403
 HF meeting Never 64 50.9 0.961   Timely 284 49.0  
Sometimes 81 47.8   Providers Nurse 203 43.1 0.006
Monthly 378 50.1    Doctors 106 63.1  
 Feedback Yes 326 52.2 0.320      
No 197 45.9       
 QA activities No 392 50.0 0.921 PNC mothers Nurses 137 37.8 0.006
Yes 131 49.3    Doctor 172 59.7  
 Waiting area No 39 38.2 0.309 PNC-Newborn Nurses 134 35.7 0.003
Yes 484 50.7    Doctor 175 60.8  
 HW category GP/Specialists 77 29.5 0.004 First baby No 136 51.8 0.576
MBBS 23 26.3    Yes 173 48.5  
Nursing 392 55.0   Delivery Normal 239 46.4 0.047
Paramedics 14 31.5    Assisted 70 62.0  
 Supervision of staff No 265 45.8 0.209      
Yes 258 54.0       
 Problem felt No 224 56.1 0.067      
Yes 299 45.1       
 Need to pay Yes 168 43.7 0.135      
No 355 52.7       
  1. Note: p-values based on Fisher exact test