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Table 5 Challenges in terms of indirect and synergetic effects of immunization on SDGs

From: Advancing sustainable development goals through immunization: a literature review

Challenges Current and suggested strategies Papers
Transdisciplinarity, cross-sectoral collaboration and capacity building Create a common vision and language, cross-sectoral alliances supporting OneHealth and Planetary Health [12, 42, 44,45,46,47]
Measuring and modeling progress in multiple dimensions Indicators for health & health environments, Composite indices [48]
Systems thinking to avoid trade-offs between SDGs [49]
Holistic approach: health and well-being (SDG3) as part of broader development plan Seek solutions closer to the source of the disease and link with SDG3 health outcomes, Ecosystem approaches. Planetary health approaches [6, 8, 12, 44, 50,51,52]
WASH interventions: provide reliable services and monitor health outcomes [53, 54]
Reduce vulnerability of communities.
Need to quantify and understand dynamics of burden of disease from environmental change, conflict and displacement.
[44, 55]
Lack of predictive power to accurately model human disease outcomes resulting from environmental change [8]
Equity Core nexus environment-economy-health, SDG integration, interdependence and implementation [12, 26, 56, 57]
Policymaking Considering full value of immunization.
Direct and indirect effects on different SDGs, beyond cost-effectiveness
Priority setting between long term and short term interventions [54]
Foster resilience and adaptation, long term effects, implementation science Long term effects, secondary effects following adaptation [58, 59]
Capacity building for resilience, Creating conditions that enable systems’ effectiveness [60, 61]
Effect of immunization on antimicrobial resistance [62]
Monitor sustainability of vaccine-induced immunity [63]
Pathogen adaptation, serotype circulation [64, 65]
Implementation design [66]
Tipping points at local level: outbreaks Surveillance at local scale, vulnerability monitoring, modeling [67]
Pandemic preparedness at global and local scale [7, 68]
Complex interactions Disease interactions, coinfections and comorbidities [69]
Technology and innovation Role of artificial intelligence for diagnostics [69]