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Table 4 Cross-border health measures by stage of journey

From: Managing borders during public health emergencies of international concern: a proposed typology of cross-border health measures

 

PRE-BORDER

AT-THE-BORDER

WITHIN-THE-BORDER

TRAVEL

travel advisory or alert (recommendation) or restriction (requirement)

  

point of entry by land, air or sea open/closed

  

transport availability

  

entry or exit restriction

 

entry or exit restriction

ceilings and quotas

  

visa requirement

visa requirement

 

essential travel documentation

essential travel documentation

 

disease free or vaccination certification

disease free or vaccination certification

 

travel insurance coverage for health care

 

travel insurance coverage for health care

screening

screening

screening

testing

testing

testing

quarantine/isolation

quarantine/isolation

quarantine/isolation

entry/exit fees and surcharges

entry/exit fees and surcharges

 
 

fines and penalties

fines and penalties

  

contact tracing

TRADE

trade advisory or alert (recommendation) or restriction (requirement)

customs inspection

health inspection

point of entry by land, air or sea open/closed

  

transport availability

  

licensing requirement

seizure, detainment and/or destruction

seizure, detainment and/or destruction

technical requirements (e.g. labelling)

fines and penalties

fines and penalties

levy and payment of tariffs

levy and payment of tariffs

levy and payment of tariffs

vector surveillance and control

vector surveillance and control

vector surveillance and control

quota (maximum volume of travel or trade)

  

inspection

inspection

inspection

testing