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Table 4 Cross-border health measures by stage of journey

From: Managing borders during public health emergencies of international concern: a proposed typology of cross-border health measures

  PRE-BORDER AT-THE-BORDER WITHIN-THE-BORDER
TRAVEL travel advisory or alert (recommendation) or restriction (requirement)   
point of entry by land, air or sea open/closed   
transport availability   
entry or exit restriction   entry or exit restriction
ceilings and quotas   
visa requirement visa requirement  
essential travel documentation essential travel documentation  
disease free or vaccination certification disease free or vaccination certification  
travel insurance coverage for health care   travel insurance coverage for health care
screening screening screening
testing testing testing
quarantine/isolation quarantine/isolation quarantine/isolation
entry/exit fees and surcharges entry/exit fees and surcharges  
  fines and penalties fines and penalties
   contact tracing
TRADE trade advisory or alert (recommendation) or restriction (requirement) customs inspection health inspection
point of entry by land, air or sea open/closed   
transport availability   
licensing requirement seizure, detainment and/or destruction seizure, detainment and/or destruction
technical requirements (e.g. labelling) fines and penalties fines and penalties
levy and payment of tariffs levy and payment of tariffs levy and payment of tariffs
vector surveillance and control vector surveillance and control vector surveillance and control
quota (maximum volume of travel or trade)   
inspection inspection inspection
testing