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Table 3 Examples of cross-border health measures by level of jurisdiction for COVID-19

From: Managing borders during public health emergencies of international concern: a proposed typology of cross-border health measures

  TRAVEL TRADE
INTERNATIONAL (ALL COUNTRIES) Quarantine measures for travellers under the IHR (WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission Standards (WHO/FAO)
REGIONAL/BILATERAL European Council Recommendation on coordinated approach to restriction of free movement [67]
US-Mexico agreement to limit non-essential travel
UK travel corridors to 50 countries
Tasman Bubble (Australia/New Zealand)
Restrictions by European Union on vaccine exports
SUBNATIONAL (STATE/PROVINCE) Atlantic Bubble (Canada)
state-level travel restrictions (Australia)
US federal control of PPE supplies to individual US states
MUNICIPAL Wuhan lockdown
Big White Ski Resort, BC limits bookings to residents (Canada) [68]
Gombe commune, Kinshasa lockdown (DRC) [69]
 
MARKET Airline requirements for passengers on selected routes (e.g., testing)
Cancellation of cruises in selected regions
Purchase agreements for COVID-19 vaccines