Skip to main content

Table 2 Overall stigma by demographic characteristics in the whole sample (N = 348)

From: COVID-19-related stigma and its sociodemographic correlates: a comparative study

Demographics SIS total Statistics
Mean SD t / F df p
Gender 2.37 346 0.018
 Female 55.2 18.1
 Male 60.2 17.7
Marital status 2.75 346 0.006
 Married 58.6 17.6
 Others 53.0 18.6
Education level 8.39 346 < 0.001
 College and above 51.2 16.7
 High school and below 66.8 16.1
Living with family 0.08 346 0.93
 Yes 56.8 17.9
 No 56.6 18.8
Occupation 4.93 346 < 0.001
 Unemployed 68.7 14.7
 Employed 54.9 17.9
Family members infected with COVID-19 17.77 277.83 a < 0.001
 Yes 74.0 11.0
 No 48.7 14.8
Feel online mental service helpful 2.42 346 0.016
 Yes 52.6 17.9
 No 58.1 18.0
Economic loss 8.20 346 < 0.001
 Yes 69.7 18.0
 No 52.6 16.1
Frequent use of social media 2.97 346 0.003
 Yes 54.4 18.7
    No 60.2 16.6
Perceived economic status 1.24 2 0.27
 Poor 67.8 18.4
 Fair 52.1 15.8
 Good 50.4 16.2
Perceived health status 14.70 2 < 0.001
 Poor 71.2 17.3
 Fair 59.8 18.0
 Good 52.1 16.9
  1. Abbreviations: COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SD standard deviation, SIS social impact scale
  2. a: Satterthwaite corrected because of the heterogeneity of variance