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Table 2 An illustration of the variation in Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) values within the ultra-processed food industry according to the defined product and geographic boundaries of the market

From: The influence of corporate market power on health: exploring the structure-conduct-performance model from a public health perspective

  Soft drink market Carbonated soft drink market
Global 586 2661
Western Europe 562 2932
United Kingdom 818 3493
  1. Note: HHI values > 2500 = very high concentration; 1800–2499 = high concentration; 1000–1799 = moderate concentration; < 999 = low concentration. Thresholds based on adapted European Central Bank and historical US Department of Justice Thresholds [76, 77]
  2. Source: Passport. Market share data based on 2019 off-trade sales data. Product market boundaries based on Passport’s categorisation of soft drink products. The soft drink market includes carbonated soft drinks, juice, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee, energy drinks, sports drinks, Asian specialty drinks, and bottled water. Carbonated soft drinks include cola carbonates and non-cola carbonates (e.g. lemonade, ginger ale)