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Table 2 The comparisons of adults’ distress and anxiety issues during the COVID-19 pandemic across studies

From: Typhoon eye effect versus ripple effect: the role of family size on mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan

Measure Sample description; data collection time Prevalence Comparison with this study Source
Distress This study 9.2%  
Kessler-6 369 adults in China, Feb 20–21, 2020 6.2% −3.0% (−6.3 to 0.6%)
χ2(1)=2.8, p = 0.10
[24]
Kessler-10 500 adults in Italy, April 10–13, 2020 18.6% 9.4% (5.5 to 13.3%)
χ2(1)=22.2, p < 0.0001
[3]
Kessler-6 1599 adults in China, Feb 1–4, 2020 Mean (SD): 7.7 (±7.7) 2.2% (1.49–2.8%)
T (2198) = 6.4, p < 0.0001
[25]
Kessler-6 2032 adults in the U.S., late April 2020 27.7% 18.5% (15.3 to 21.4%)
χ2(1)=88.3, p < 0.0001
[26]
Anxiety This study 19.0%  
GAD-2 3088 adults in 32 provinces of China, Feb 20–27, 2020 13.2% −5.83% (− 2.6% to − 9.3%)
χ2(1)=13.9, p = 0.0002
[27]
GAD-2 3480 adults in Spain, March 21–27, 2020 21.6% 2.3% (− 1.3 to 5.5%)
χ2(1)=1.6, p = 0.21
[28]
GAD-7 103 adults in China, Feb 10–28, 2020 22.3% 3.3% (− 4.4 to 12.7%)
χ2(1)=0.6, p = 0.44
[29]
GAD-7 98 adults in Zhongshan, Guangdong in China, Feb 15–29, 2020 23.4% 4.4% (−3.6 to 14.1%)
χ2(1)=1.03, p = 0.31
[30]
GAD-7 4872 adults in China, Jan 31–Feb 2, 2020 22.6% 3.6% (.1–6.8%)
χ2(1)=4.0, p = .045
[31]
GAD-2 1577 adults in Wuhan, China, Feb 18–24, 2020 23.8% 4.8% (.9–8.5%)
χ2(1)=5.7, p = .017
[32]
GAD-7 1556 seniors older than 60 years in China 37.1% 18.1% (14.0–21.9%)
χ2(1)=65.2, p < .0001
[33]