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Table 4 Results of multi-level analysis

From: Analysis of personal and national factors that influence depression in individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic: a web-based cross-sectional survey

Category Model 0 Model 1 Model 2
   Coef. 95%CI Coef. 95%CI
Personal variable
Sex
  Male    (ref)   (ref)  
  Female    0.720** (0.253, 1.186) 0.718** (0.248, 1.181)
Age    −0.090*** (−0.122, − 0.058) −0.086*** (− 0.118–0.054)
Marital status
  Not married    (ref)   (ref)  
  Married    −0.256 (− 0.054, 1.840) − 0.222 (− 0.949, 0.504)
Number of family members
  One-person household    (ref)   (ref)  
  2    0.893 (− 0.054, 1.840) 0.847 (−1.001, 1.794)
  3–5    −0.149 (− 0.930, 0.632) − 0.249 (−1.028, 0.530)
  6 or more    0.083 (−0.799, 0.966) 0.034 (−0.849, 0.917)
Experience of discrimination at the national level due to COVID-19
  No    (ref)   (ref)  
  Yes    0.989*** (0.498, 1.479) 0.948** (0.458, 1.436)
Subjective health    −1.624*** (− 1.921, − 1.325) −1.612*** (− 1.909, − 1.315)
Knowledge of COVID-19    0.062 (−0.141, 0.265) 0.074 (− 0.129, 0.277)
Trust in hospitals    −0.216** (−0.374, − 0.057) −0.231** (− 0.388, − 0.072)
Private health insurance
  No    (ref)   (ref)  
  Yes    −0.233 (−0.783, 0.316) −0.370 (− 0.915, 0.176)
Practice of social prevention activities    −0.004 (−0.081, 0.072) − 0.002 (− 0.078, 0.073)
Practice of hygienic prevention activities    −0.208*** (−0.271, − 0.143) −0.228*** (− 0.289, − 0.166)
National variables
Stringency index score      0.139*** (0.074, 0.203)
Life expectancy      0.453*** (0.333, 0.573)
Literacy rate      −0.096*** (−0.152, − 0.040)
Social capital      0.230*** (0.173, 0.286)
PPP      5.86 (−5.60, 1.73)
ICC 0.130 0.221 0.016
  1. *p < 0.05,**p < 0.01;*** < p < 0.001
  2. PPP Purchasing Power Parity, ICC Interclass Correlation Coefficient, Coef: Regression Coefficients, 95%CI 95% Confidence Interval