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Table 4 Frequencies of response strategies used to address concern about COVID-19 (by gender), and their association with mental health disorder symptoms

From: The influence of concern about COVID-19 on mental health in the Republic of Georgia: a cross-sectional study

Response strategy Frequencies (N = 2088) Association with mental health disorder symptoms (N = 2011) b
Women Men Anxiety c Depressionc PTSDc Adjustment disorderc
N % N % OR P OR P OR P OR P
Emotional support and expression:
 Emotional support by speaking with family/friends 1005 55.62 122 43.42a 0.71 < 0.01 0.88 0.25 0.80 0.13 1.06 0.55
 Going to church/praying 244 13.50 26 9.25a 0.77 0.16 0.77 0.12 0.99 0.96 0.73 0.04
 Expressing my negative feelings /crying/arguing/being aggressive 236 13.06 20 7.12a 4.42 < 0.01 4.45 < 0.01 4.42 < 0.01 4.14 < 0.01
Positive thinking and helping others:
 Looking for something good in what is happening 591 32.71 85 30.25 0.41 < 0.01 0.60 < 0.01 0.63 0.01 0.63 < 0.01
 Planning for the future, considering facts of changed reality 576 31.88 109 38.79a 0.63 < 0.01 0.73 0.01 0.59 0.00 0.84 0.08
 Helping others 530 29.33 81 28.83 0.79 0.07 0.81 0.07 0.96 0.79 0.79 0.03
Exercise and relaxation techniques:
 Taking exercise 640 35.42 110 39.15 0.53 < 0.01 0.55 < 0.01 0.66 0.01 0.66 < 0.01
 Meditation/relaxation exercises 200 11.07 26 9.25 0.39 < 0.01 0.47 < 0.01 0.39 < 0.01 0.46 < 0.01
Professional help & medications:
 Self-medication on prescribed drugs 94 5.20 10 3.56 2.71 < 0.01 3.35 < 0.01 3.60 < 0.01 3.21 < 0.01
 Getting psychological support (e.g. online counselling/therapy) 90 4.98 12 4.27 1.92 0.01 2.33 < 0.01 3.29 < 0.01 1.84 0.01
 Calling NCDC hotline or family doctor 19 1.05 5 1.78 2.60 0.04 1.48 0.41 1.35 0.64 1.25 0.62
Distraction:
 Reading, TV, radio 983 54.40 169 60.14 0.52 < 0.01 0.67 < 0.01 0.55 0.00 0.85 0.10
 Doing housework or DIY 835 46.21 103 36.65a 0.63 < 0.01 0.73 < 0.01 0.68 0.01 0.73 < 0.01
 Working 666 36.86 122 43.42 0.74 0.02 0.62 < 0.01 0.80 0.20 0.87 0.18
 Using social media 661 36.58 129 45.91a 0.91 0.42 1.21 0.08 1.01 0.93 1.14 0.20
 Daydreaming/sleeping 542 29.99 86 30.60 1.62 < 0.01 2.33 < 0.01 1.68 < 0.01 2.14 < 0.01
 Playing a lot of video games 49 2.71 48 17.08a 1.28 0.34 1.41 1.97 1.31 0.38 1.25 0.35
Substance use or gambling:
 Drinking alcohol 149 8.25 55 19.57a 1.50 0.03 1.97 < 0.01 1.81 0.01 1.72 < 0.01
 Gambling 13 0.72 11 3.91a 1.84 0.22 1.55 0.37 2.07 0.19 1.45 0.42
 Taking illegal drugs 12 0.66 14 4.98a 1.15 0.78 0.94 0.91 0.81 0.63
  1. aFrequencies: statistically significant difference between women and men at P < 0.05 (Chi2 test)
  2. bSeparate multivariate regression models run for association between individual mental disorder and individual response strategy, adjusting for gender, age, education, household economic status, household size, and existing mental health disorder (for brevity, only data for response strategy are shown). Statistically significant (P < 0.05) results shown in bold
  3. cGAD-7 anxiety score > 9; PHQ-9 depression score > 9; ADNM 8 adjustment disorder score > 18.4; see methods section for PTSD (ITQ) scoring