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Table 5 Factors associated with high psychological distress among the study population (based on K10 score)

From: Factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia

Characteristics Moderate to Very High (score 16–50), n(%) Low (score 10–15), n(%) Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
p OR 95% CIs p AOR 95% CIs
Total study participants 341 205       
Age groups 313 187       
 18–29 years 72 (23.0) 25 (13.4)   1    1  
 30–59 years 224 (71.6) 139 (74.3) 0.023 0.56 0.34–0.92 0.358 0.75 0.41–1.37
 60+ years 17 (5.4) 23 (12.3) 0.001 0.26 0.12–0.56 0.010 0.29 0.11–0.74
Gender 341 205       
 Male 106 (31.1) 98 (47.8)   1    1  
 Female 235 (68.9) 107 (52.2) 0.000 2.03 1.42–2.90 0.009 1.74 1.15–2.65
Living status 339 205       
 Live without family members (on your own/shared house/others) 87 (25.7) 36 (17.6)   1    1  
 Live with family members (partner and/or children) 252 (74.3) 169 (82.4) 0.029 0.62 0.40–0.95 0.210 0.71 0.41–1.22
Born in Australia 342 205       
 No 200 (58.5) 126 (61.5)   1    1  
 Yes 142 (41.5) 79 (38.5) 0.491 1.13 0.79–1.61 0.623 1.12 0.70–1.80
Completed level of education 342 205       
 Grade 1–12 43 (12.6) 26 (12.7)   1    1  
 Trade/Certificate/Diploma 62 (18.1) 22 (10.7) 0.129 1.7 0.86–3.39 0.106 1.89 0.87–4.09
 Bachelor and above 237 (69.3) 157 (76.6) 0.734 0.91 0.54–1.55 0.974 1.01 0.52–1.95
Current employment condition 326 195       
 Unemployed/Home duties 44 (13.5) 19 (9.7)   1    1  
 Jobs affected by COVID-19 (lost job/working hours reduced/afraid of job loss) 59 (18.1) 22 (11.3) 0.693 1.16 0.56–2.40 0.948 1.02 0.46–2.32
 Have an income source (employed/Government benefits) 223 (68.4) 154 (79.0) 0.110 0.63 0.35–1.11 0.113 0.59 0.30–1.14
Perceived distress due to change of employment status 118 33       
 A little to none 27 (22.9) 10 (30.3)   1    1  
 Moderate to a great deal 91 (77.1) 23 (69.7) 0.383 1.47 0.62–3.45 0.399 1.58 0.55–4.54
Self-identification as a frontline or essential service worker 342 205       
 No 213 (62.3) 101 (49.3)   1    1  
 Yes 129 (37.7) 104 (50.7) 0.003 0.59 0.41–0.83 0.032 0.64 0.42–0.96
COVID-19 impacted financial situation 341 205       
 No 137 (40.2) 91 (44.4)   1    1  
 Yes 204 (59.8) 114 (55.6) 0.334 1.19 0.84–1.69 0.534 1.14 0.76–1.72
Co-morbidities 342 205       
 No 169 (49.4) 104 (50.7)   1    1  
 Psychiatric/Mental health issues 36 (10.5) 5 (2.4) 0.003 4.43 1.69–11.7 0.029 3.13 1.12–8.75
 Other co-morbidities* 137 (40.1) 96 (46.8) 0.476 0.88 0.61–1.26 0.613 1.11 0.73–1.69
Smoking 267 158       
 Never smoker 226 (84.6) 144 (91.1)   1    1  
 Ever smoker (Daily/Non-daily/Ex) 41 (15.4) 14 (8/9) 0.054 1.87 0.98–3.55 0.054 2.03 0.99–4.17
Increased smoking over the last 4 weeks 41 14       
 No 22 (53.7) 12 (85.7)   1    1  
 Yes 19 (46.3) 2 (14.3) 0.046 5.18 1.03–26.1 0.042 8.66 1.08–69.1
Current alcohol drinking (last 4 weeks) 341 205       
 No 206 (60.4) 138 (67.3)   1    1  
 Yes 135 (39.6) 67 (32.7) 0.106 1.35 0.94–1.94 0.196 1.35 0.85–2.15
Increased alcohol drinking over the last 4 weeks 134 65       
 No 84 (62.7) 54 (83.1)   1    1  
 Yes 50 (37.3) 11 (16.9) 0.004 2.92 1.40–6.11 0.038 2.39 1.05–5.47
Provided care to a family member/patient with known/suspected case of COVID-19 321 195       
 No 281 (82.2) 170 (82.9)   1    1  
 Yes 61 (17.8) 35 (17.1) 0.820 1.05 0.67–1.67 0.841 1.05 0.63–1.76
Experience related to COVID-19 pandemic 342 205       
 I have been self-isolating prior to receiving negative result for COVID-19 52 (15.2) 19 (9.3) 0.048 1.76 1.01–3.06 0.082 1.75 0.93–3.30
Healthcare service use in the last 4 weeks 342 205       
 No 255 (74.6) 178 (86.8)   1    1  
 Visited healthcare providers in person 47 (13.7) 17 (8.3) 0.028 1.93 1.07–3.47 0.983 1.01 0.30–3.41
 Telehealth consultation with healthcare providers/National helpline 40 (11.7) 10 (4.9) 0.005 2.79 1.36–5.73 0.408 0.46 0.07–2.93
Level of fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S categories) 342 205       
 Low (score 7–21) 207 (60.5) 166 (81.0)   1    1  
 High (score 22–35) 135 (39.5) 39 (19.0) 0.000 2.78 1.84–4.19 0.000 2.93 1.83–4.67
Level of coping (BRCS categories) 342 205       
 Low resilient copers (score 4–13) 333 (97.4) 200 (97.6)   1    1  
 Medium to high resilient copers (score 14–20) 9 (2.6) 5 (2.4) 0.89 1.08 0.36–3.27 0.741 1.22 0.38–3.87
Healthcare service use to overcome COVID-19 related stress in the last 4 weeks 342 205       
 No 306 (89.5) 203 (99.0)   1    1  
 Yes 36 (10.5) 2 (6.9) 0.001 11.9 2.84–50.1 0.004 20.2 2.64–154
  1. Adjusted for: age, gender, living status, born in Australia, education and employment
  2. * Cardiac diseases/Stroke/Hypertension/Hyperlipidaemia/Diabetes/Cancer/Chronic respiratory illness