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Table 1 Summary of characteristics of the included studies

From: Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author [Reference] Year Region Study population Male% Assessment STROBE score sampling method Cut off Outcomes (sample size)
Depression % (n) Anxiety % (n) Stress % (n)
A Moghanibashi-Mansourieh [21] 2020 Iran 10,754 34.2% DASS-21 28 online survey A > 7 N.A. 50.9% (5472) N.A.
MZ Ahmed.et al. [22] 2020 China 1074 53.2% BAI BDI-II 23 online survey ≥8 ≥ 14 37.1% (399) 29% (312) N.A.
C Wang.et al. [23] 2020 China 1210 32.7% DASS-21 22 online survey A > 7 D > 9 S > 10 30.3% (367) 36.4% (440) 32.1% (389)
W Cao.et al. [24] 2020 China 7143 30.35% GAD-7 20 cluster sampling ≥5 N.A. 24.9% (1776) N.A.
Y Huang. et al. [25] 2020 China 7236 45.4% GAD-7 CES-D 18 web-based survey ≥9 ≥ 28 20.1% (1454) 35.1% (2540) N.A.
M Ueda. et al. [26] 2020 Japan 1000 49.6% GAD-7 PHQ-9 25 online survey ≥10 ≥ 10 43.1% (431) 33.2% (332) N.A.
D Liu.et al. [27] 2020 China 14,592 31.6% GAD-7 PHQ-9 26 online survey N.A. 53.5% (7503) 44.6% (6196) N.A.
SJ Zhou .et al. [23] 2020 China 8079 46.5% GAD-7 PHQ-9 26 online survey > 4 > 4 43.7% (3533) 37.4% (3020) N.A.
A Sigdel. et al. [28] 2020 Nepal 349 54.2% GAD-7 PHQ-9 29 online survey ≥10 ≥ 10 34% (119) 31% (109) N.A.
SSH Kazmi. et al. [29] 2020 India 1000 38% DASS-21 19 online survey A > 7 D > 9 S > 10 38.9% (389) 43% (430) 35.7% (357)
N Othman. et al. [30] 2020 Iraq 548 49.6% DASS-21 19 online survey A > 7 D > 9 S > 10 44.9% (246) 47.1% (258) 17.5% (96)
Y Wang. et al. [31] 2020 China 600 44.5% SAS SDS 19 online survey ≥50 ≥ 50 17.17% (103) 6.33% (38) N.A.
M Qian. et al. [32] 2020 China 1011 50.44% GAD-7 28 elephone survey via random digital dialing ≥10 N.A. 26.6% (269) N.A.
M Shevlin. et al. [33] 2020 UK 2025 48% GAD-7 PHQ-9 22 online survey (quota sampling) ≥10 ≥ 10 22.12% (448) 21.63% (438) N.A.
P Odriozola-González. et al. [34] 2020 Spain 3550 35.1% DASS-21 24 social media A > 6 D > 9 S > 10 44.1% (1566) 32.4% (1150) 37% (1314)
SF Agberotimi. et al. [35] 2020 Nigeria 502 53.6% GAD-7 PHQ-9 29 Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) technique and Random Survey Sampling (RSS) > 5 ≥ 10 23.5% (118) 49.6% (249) N.A.
C Mazza. et al. [36] 2020 Italy 2766 28.3% DASS-21 27 online survey A > 6 D > 9 S > 10 32.8% (906) 18.7% (517) 27.2% (752)
  1. DASS-21 The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, SAS Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, SDS Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, BAI the Beck Anxiety Inventory, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale