Skip to main content

Table 1 Policy challenges of medical tourism in source and destination countries and issues addressed in policy research

From: The north-south policy divide in transnational healthcare: a comparative review of policy research on medical tourism in source and destination countries

CountryKey policy challengesIssues addressed in policy research
CanadaPatient wait times
Physician shortages
Quality of care in private sector
Effectiveness and safety of stem cell therapies
Regulation of medical tourism companies
Effects on provincial healthcare systems
Access to private healthcare for residents
Standards of care in destination countries
Institutional drivers of medical tourism
Patterns of medical tourism and effects on preferential access
Development of health and safety advisory for caregiver-companions
Ethical and legal concerns of medical tourism
Obligations of healthcare providers towards outbound patients
Facilitation of medical tourism
Physician concerns with care quality and continuity
USHigh healthcare costs
Cost-control challenges and moral hazard
Disparities in access
Selective coverage
Effectiveness and safety of experimental therapies
Regulation of medical and pharmaceutical industries
Standards of care in destination countries
Institutional drivers of medical tourism
Motivations for medical travel
Transnational differences in policy goals
Regulatory barriers
Domestic medical tourism
Legal protections for medical tourists
Market for selective technologies and its ethical concerns
Ethical and logistic challenges of transplant tourism
Transparency in organ transplantation
UKNHS cutbacks
Shortage of healthcare professionals
Immigration rules for healthcare professionals
Patient wait times
High cost of private healthcare
Effects of treatment time guarantee
Ethics of private sector contracting
Access to medicinal cannabis
Rights of UK citizens to healthcare in the EU
Cross-border jurisdiction issues
Healthcare coverage for migrants and visitors
Revenue generation from medical tourism
Effectiveness, safety and legality of experimental therapies
Standards of care in destination countries
Insurance protection for outbound medical tourists
Spread of drug-resistant superbugs
Effects of Brexit
Estimates of medical tourism flows
Economic and health system implications
Motivations for medical travel
Rights and entitlements of migrants and visitors
Access to abortion services and barriers to legal reform
Regulation of international surrogacy, stem cell markets and organ trafficking
Bilateral agreements in medical tourism
MexicoMarket for medical tourism and its economic potential
Supply-side capacities and constraints
Mexico’s role in global public health
Medical risks and safety concerns
Use of Mexican medical providers by US patients, insurers and hospitals
Cross-border health seeking by US Hispanic immigrants
Supply-side drivers and impediments
Effects of economic integration
Binational insurance
Effects of healthcare reforms on cross-border healthcare
Regulation of stem cell treatment
IndiaMarket for medical tourism and its economic potential
Government’s role in promoting medical tourism
Distortionary effects on health system and equity implications
Motivations for medical travel and patient experiences
Medical tourism development
Impact on health system and health workforce
Ethical concerns and gaps in regulation of assisted reproduction, organ transplantation and stem cell treatment
Bilateral agreements in medical tourism
ThailandMarket for medical tourism and its economic potential
Competitiveness
Government’s role in promoting medical tourism
Distortionary effects on health system and equity implications
Perceptions of medical tourists and implications for destination choice
Patient experiences
Medical tourism development
Economic and health system implications
Regulation of assisted reproduction and its limitations
MalaysiaMarket for medical tourism and its economic potential
Competitiveness
Government’s role in promoting medical tourism
Distortionary effects on health system and equity implications
Perceptions of medical tourists and implications for destination choice
Motivations for medical travel and care seeking behavior
Medical tourism development
Competitiveness
Economic and health system implications
Ethical and legal concerns
Sustainable development
Adaptation in organ donation legislation and transplant policy
SingaporePatient satisfaction
Competitiveness
Medical tourism development
Competitiveness
Economic and health system implications
Adaptation in organ donation legislation and transplant policy