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Table 2 Relationship between outcomes, MILES dimensions, monetary value, and productivity

From: The value of international volunteers experience to the NHS

Perceived outcomes Key aspects of job creation/quality Model of Monetary value which accounts for these outcomes (*) Included in NHS productivity gains
Dimensions in Jones et al. (2013) Examples of core outcomes in Tyler et al. (2018) Dimension in Adapted MILES (Fig. 1)
Clinical skills - Ability to use a broader range of clinical skills - Increased awareness of/knowledge about tropical diseases - Increased awareness of/knowledge about the cultural aspects of health E: attributes and skills Economic value Yes
Management skills - Ability to be adaptable in leading - Ability to work within a system with unfamiliar power dynamics - Ability to manage projects E: attributes and skills I: innovation Economic value Yes
Communication and teamwork - Understanding that words and behaviors can have different meanings - Ability to co-operate - Ability to work as part of a team E: attributes and skills L: perceptions/retention/gap to community Economic value Yes
Patient experience and dignity - Understanding own potential to empower people - Increased respect for other cultures - Appreciation of free universal health E: attributes and skills L: perceptions/ gap to community I: role NHS and partnerships/ gap professional-informal service delivery Economic value Yes
Service/policy development and implementation - Increased awareness of/knowledge about the positive impact of clinical policies and governance - Appreciation of excellent human resource in the NHS I: role of NHS and partnerships Economic value Yes
Academic skills - Ability to dissemination best practice globally - Improvement in teaching skills - Ability to build a global network E: attributes and skills, L: perceptions/ gap community I: role NHS and partnerships Economic value Yes
Personal satisfaction and interests - Ability to develop friendships - Refreshment and reinvigoration - Can-do attitude Social capital and health Private value (Well-being theory) Social value (Social capital) No