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Table 2 Relationship between outcomes, MILES dimensions, monetary value, and productivity

From: The value of international volunteers experience to the NHS

Perceived outcomes Key aspects of job creation/quality Model of Monetary value which accounts for these outcomes (*) Included in NHS productivity gains
Dimensions in Jones et al. (2013) Examples of core outcomes in Tyler et al. (2018) Dimension in Adapted MILES (Fig. 1)
Clinical skills - Ability to use a broader range of clinical skills
- Increased awareness of/knowledge about tropical diseases
- Increased awareness of/knowledge about the cultural aspects of health
E: attributes and skills Economic value Yes
Management skills - Ability to be adaptable in leading
- Ability to work within a system with unfamiliar power dynamics
- Ability to manage projects
E: attributes and skills
I: innovation
Economic value Yes
Communication and teamwork - Understanding that words and behaviors can have different meanings
- Ability to co-operate
- Ability to work as part of a team
E: attributes and skills
L: perceptions/retention/gap to community
Economic value Yes
Patient experience and dignity - Understanding own potential to empower people
- Increased respect for other cultures
- Appreciation of free universal health
E: attributes and skills
L: perceptions/ gap to community
I: role NHS and partnerships/ gap professional-informal service delivery
Economic value Yes
Service/policy development and implementation - Increased awareness of/knowledge about the positive impact of clinical policies and governance
- Appreciation of excellent human resource in the NHS
I: role of NHS and partnerships Economic value Yes
Academic skills - Ability to dissemination best practice globally
- Improvement in teaching skills
- Ability to build a global network
E: attributes and skills, L: perceptions/ gap community
I: role NHS and partnerships
Economic value Yes
Personal satisfaction and interests - Ability to develop friendships
- Refreshment and reinvigoration
- Can-do attitude
Social capital and health Private value (Well-being theory)
Social value (Social capital)