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Table 6 Fixed-effects models for WHZs, n = 205,556

From: Agricultural trade policies and child nutrition in low- and middle-income countries: a cross-national analysis

Weight-for-age Z scores Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
NRA tradable agriculture (10%) 0.04
(−0.01, 0.08)
0.04
(− 0.01, 0.08)
0.09***
(0.05, 0.14)
 Parental occupation
  Non-agricultural Ref
  At least one parent self-employed in agriculture −0.02
(−0.07, 0.03)
− 0.02
(− 0.07, 0.02)
−0.03
(− 0.09, 0.02)
  At least one wage-earning parent − 0.04
(− 0.08, 0.01)
−0.04
(− 0.09, 0.01)
−0.00
(− 0.04, 0.04)
  Parents unemployed 0.01
(− 0.04, 0.05)
0.01
(− 0.04, 0.06)
0.01
(− 0.05, 0.07)
Share of tradable agriculture (10%) −0.00
(− 0.08, 0.08)
−0.00
(− 0.08, 0.07)
−0.06
(− 0.13, 0.01)
 Parental occupation*NRA tradable agriculture (10%)
  Non-agricultural Ref
  At least one parent self-employed in agriculture   −0.01
(− 0.02, 0.01)
0.01
(− 0.02, 0.03)
  At least one wage-earning parent   0.02
(−0.01, 0.05)
0.03
(− 0.00, 0.05)
  Parents unemployed   0.01
(−0.01, 0.02)
0.03
(−0.00, 0.06)
Share tradable agriculture (10%)*NRA tradable agriculture (10%)    −0.04***
(− 0.06, − 0.02)
 Parental occupation*Share tradable agriculture (10%)
  Non-agricultural Ref
  At least one parent self-employed in agriculture    0.02
(−0.00, 0.04)
  At least one wage-earning parent    −0.03
(− 0.07, 0.01)
  Parents unemployed    0.00
(−0.02, 0.02)
 Parental occupation*Share tradable agriculture (10%)*NRA tradable agriculture (10%)
  Non-agricultural Ref
  At least one parent self-employed in agriculture    −0.00
(−0.01, 0.01)
  At least one wage-earning parent    −0.01
(− 0.03, 0.01)
  Parents unemployed    −0.01
(− 0.02, 0.00)
  1. Notes: Model 1 controls for child’s age, sex, singleton/multiple birth status, birth order, vaccination status, months of breastfeeding, recent fever, and recent diarrhea; mother’s age, number of children, education, BMI, and marital status; household residence (rural/urban), wealth quintile, improved water, and improved sanitation; country-level share of tradable agriculture, log of the value of production of agriculture, NRA for non-tradable agriculture, log of official development assistance and aid, and governance (democratization); country fixed-effects and year fixed-effects. Model 2 adds an interaction between the NRA to tradable agriculture and parental occupation. Model 3 adds interaction terms with the share of tradable agriculture, including a three-way interaction with the NRA to tradable agriculture and parental occupation. Share of tradable agriculture is centered at 50%. Standard errors are clustered by country. Estimates in italics represent p-values < 0.10. * represents p-values < 0.05. ** represents p-values < 0.01. *** represents p-values < 0.001