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Table 3 Multiple regression fixed effects models

From: What is driving global obesity trends? Globalization or “modernization”?

  All countries LMICs HICs
Total Female Male Total Female Male Total Female Male
(Coef, CI) (Coef, CI) (Coef, CI) (Coef, CI) (Coef, CI) (Coef, CI) (Coef, CI) (Coef, CI) (Coef, CI)
Real GDP per Capita (1000 2005US$), PPP 5 yr. lag − 0.0049*** − 0.0132*** 0.0035** 0.0477*** 0.0323*** 0.0631*** −0.0065*** − 0.0092*** − 0.0038***
[− 0.0072,-0.0025] [− 0.0162,-0.0102] [0.0013,0.0056] [0.0356,0.0598] [0.0172,0.0475] [0.0520,0.0743] [−0.0090,-0.0040] [−0.0125,-0.0059] [− 0.0057,-0.0019]
Economic Globalization, 5 yr. lag − 0.1007 −0.1378 − 0.0635 − 0.0276 − 0.027 − 0.0282 − 0.4988** − 0.5568* − 0.4407***
[− 0.2855,0.0842] [− 0.3741,0.0984] [− 0.2288,0.1018] [− 0.2474,0.1922] [− 0.3019,0.2479] [− 0.2300,0.1737] [−0.8224,-0.1751] [− 0.9863,-0.1272] [− 0.6892,-0.1922]
Cultural Globalization, 5 yr. lag 0.0846 −1.0025*** 1.1717*** 0.215 −0.5755** 1.0056*** −0.5068** −1.1211*** 0.1074
[−0.1219,0.2910] [−1.2663,-0.7388] [0.9871,1.3562] [−0.0895,0.5195] [−0.9563,-0.1947] [0.7260,1.2852] [−0.8291,-0.1846] [−1.5489,-0.6933] [− 0.1400,0.3548]
Women’s Empower-ment index, 5 yr. lag 0.5548*** 0.5370*** 0.5727*** 0.4898*** 0.3134** 0.6662*** 1.2394*** 1.7150*** 0.7638***
[0.3894,0.7203] [0.3255,0.7484] [0.4248,0.7207] [0.3076,0.6720] [0.0856,0.5413] [0.4989,0.8335] [0.8624,1.6164] [1.2146,2.2155] [0.4743,1.0533]
Democracy, 5 yr. lag −0.0165*** −0.0147*** −0.0182*** − 0.0145*** −0.0143*** − 0.0146*** −0.0109** − 0.0102* −0.0116***
[−0.0194,-0.0136] [−0.0185,-0.0110] [− 0.0209,-0.0156] [− 0.0177,-0.0112] [−0.0184,-0.0103] [− 0.0176,-0.0116] [− 0.0178,-0.0040] [−0.0193,-0.0010] [− 0.0169,-0.0063]
Urban Population (%), 5 yr. lag 0.0197*** 0.0243*** 0.0151*** 0.0197*** 0.0210*** 0.0185*** 0.0110** 0.0108* 0.0112***
[0.0162,0.0232] [0.0198,0.0288] [0.0119,0.0182] [0.0157,0.0238] [0.0159,0.0261] [0.0147,0.0222] [0.0039,0.0181] [0.0014,0.0203] [0.0057,0.0167]
Fat supply (g/capita/day), 2 yr. lag −0.2298 −0.5855 0.1259 0.0601 −0.2523 0.3725 −0.4245 −1.2499* 0.4009
[−0.7781,0.3185] [−1.2861,0.1152] [−0.3645,0.6162] [− 0.6256,0.7458] [− 1.1098,0.6052] [− 0.2572,1.0021] [−1.3135,0.4645] [−2.4299,-0.0699] [−0.2817,1.0834]
Protein supply (g/capita/day), 2 yr. lag 5.2932*** 6.3267*** 4.2597*** 5.5366*** 6.5930*** 4.4803*** 3.7067*** 4.5127*** 2.9006***
[4.5661,6.0203] [5.3976,7.2557] [3.6095,4.9099] [4.6805,6.3927] [5.5223,7.6636] [3.6942,5.2664] [2.3864,5.0270] [2.7602,6.2651] [1.8869,3.9143]
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Tons per Capita), 2 yr. lag 0.0246*** 0.0231*** 0.0262*** 0.0821*** 0.1053*** 0.0588*** 0.0206*** 0.0232*** 0.0181***
[0.0189,0.0304] [0.0158,0.0304] [0.0211,0.0313] [0.0640,0.1002] [0.0827,0.1279] [0.0422,0.0755] [0.0146,0.0267] [0.0151,0.0312] [0.0134,0.0227]
_cons 21.2243*** 21.5672*** 20.8815*** 20.6110*** 21.0407*** 20.1813*** 23.0198*** 23.1230*** 22.9165***
  [21.014,21.434] [21.298,21.835] [20.693,21.069] [20.409,20.812] [20.788,21.292] [19.996,20.366] [22.447,23.592] [22.363,23.882] [22.477,23.355]
r2 0.8217 0.7798 0.8209 0.8317 0.8167 0.7974 0.8346 0.721 0.9054
N 4206 4206 4206 2911 2911 2911 1295 1295 1295
  1. *time fixed effects entered but not shown. Significance level: * p < .05, ** for p < .01, and *** for p < .001