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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios for participants’ health-related outcomesa

From: Assessment of the health status and health service perceptions of international migrants coming to Guangzhou, China, from high-, middle- and low-income countries

  Perceived good health status Became healthier since coming to China Ever had health problems in China Had medical insurance in China Perceived health services in China as good
ORm (95% CI) ORm (95% CI) ORm (95% CI) ORm (95% CI) ORm (95% CI)
Countries by income levels
 LICs 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 MICs 0.55 (0.29, 1.04) 0.81 (0.54, 1.22) 2.20 (1.25, 3.85)** 1.12 (0.75, 1.67) 0.83 (0.60, 1.16)
 HICs 0.41 (0.21, 0.80)** 0.33 (0.19, 0.56)*** 3.53 (1.93, 6.44)*** 2.63 (1.67, 4.15)*** 0.29 (0.19, 0.43)***
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Gender        
  Male    1.00   1.00      
  Female    0.52 (0.33, 0.81)** 1.44 (0.99, 2.09)+     
 Age (years)         
  18–25    1.00   1.00   1.00    
  26–35    1.01 (0.64, 1.59) 0.89 (0.57, 1.40) 0.74 (0.50, 1.1)   
  > 35    1.25 (0.72, 2.15) 0.67 (0.38, 1.20) 1.20 (0.74, 1.95)   
 Education level       
  Junior high or below        1.00    
  Senior high school        1.74 (0.77, 3.89)   
  College or above        2.75 (1.32, 5.72)**   
 Current marital status         
  Married    1.00   1.00   1.00    
  Cohabitation    0.68 (0.33, 1.40) 1.95 (1.06, 3.61)* 2.57 (1.49, 4.43)**   
  Single    0.76 (0.51, 1.14) 1.52 (0.99, 2.33)+ 1.44 (1.00, 2.07)   
Migration-related characteristics
 Visa type        
  Tourist visa      1.00   1.00    
  Business visa      1.80 (0.98, 3.28) 1.16 (0.69, 1.94)   
  Work visa      1.43 (0.80, 2.57) 2.37 (1.45, 3.88)**   
  Student visa      1.26 (0.67, 2.38) 3.57 (2.06, 6.19)***   
  Others      1.71 (0.86, 3.43) 1.97 (1.09, 3.56)*   
 Number of visits to China        
  Once      1.00     1.00  
  2–5 times      1.26 (0.79, 2.02)    0.83 (0.60, 1.16)
  6–10 times      1.40 (0.77, 2.55)    0.81 (0.52, 1.26)
  > 10 times      1.65 (0.96, 2.81)    0.81 (0.56, 1.15)
 Number of cumulative months of stay in China  
  0–6 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00    
  7–12 1.12 (0.55, 2.30) 1.58 (0.96, 2.59) 1.21 (0.72, 2.03) 0.89 (0.56, 1.42)   
  13–60 1.01 (0.56, 1.85) 1.21 (0.77, 1.91) 1.22 (0.76, 1.94) 1.41 (0.95, 2.09)   
  61≤ 0.45 (0.25, 0.79)** 1.02 (0.58, 1.77) 1.62 (0.95, 2.75) 1.07 (0.65, 1.75)   
Social integration in China
 Had a Chinese name          
  No    1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Yes    0.76 (0.54, 1.08) 1.15 (0.78, 1.70) 1.15 (0.82, 1.62) 0.83 (0.63, 1.11)
 Had education experience in China       
  No        1.00    
  Yes        1.08 (0.74, 1.58)   
 Proficiency in Mandarin         
  Know nothing      1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Know little      1.24 (0.72, 2.13) 0.94 (0.62, 1.42) 0.94 (0.66, 1.35)
  Fair (can deal with daily life)      1.75 (0.96, 3.18) 0.91 (0.56, 1.48) 1.02 (0.67, 1.55)
  Fluent      1.76 (0.88, 3.51) 0.66 (0.37, 1.17) 0.60 (0.36, 1.00)
 Proficiency in English     
  Know nothing 1.00          
  Know little 2.48 (0.98, 6.26)         
  Fair (can deal with daily life) 3.66 (1.51, 8.89)**         
  Fluent 5.27 (2.22, 12.48)***         
Social network in China
 Number of Chinese acquaintances one knew in Guangzhou         
  0–10 1.00    1.00   1.00   
  11–50 1.70 (1.04, 2.78)*    1.04 (0.69, 1.56) 1.35 (0.96, 1.89)   
  51≤ 1.68 (1.03, 2.74)*    1.18 (0.78, 1.79) 1.32 (0.93, 1.88)   
 Participation in hometown associations/the Chamber of Commerce in Guangzhou
  No   1.00   1.00   1.00   
  Yes    1.68 (1.14, 2.49)** 1.24 (0.82, 1.89) 1.66 (1.14, 2.41)**   
  1. a: Variables that were non-significant in univariate logistic regression models of all outcome variables were not listed in the table, namely currently has a job in China, number of years since the first visit to China, and number of fellow townsmen one knew in Guangzhou
  2. --: Variables that were non-significant in univariate logistic regression models. +: p < 0.1; *: p < 0.05; **: p < 0.01; ***: p < 0.001. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with p < 0.05 are presented in bold