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Table 2 General characteristics of the study population

From: Determinants of early neonatal mortality in Afghanistan: an analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey 2015

Variables Early neonatal deaths
No (N (%))a Yes (N (%))a Total (N (%))b
Individual factors
Sex
 Female 9279 (98.9) 100 (1.1) 9379 (47.8)
 Male 10,092 (98.4) 166 (1.6) 10,257 (52.2)
Birth size
 Average 11,629 (99.2) 97 (0.8) 11,726 (61.2)
 Smaller than average 2641 (98.5) 39 (1.5) 2680 (14.0)
 Larger than average 4660 (97.9) 101 (2.1) 4761 (24.8)
Multiple gestation
 No 19,177 (98.7) 245 (1.3) 19,422 (98.9)
 Yes 193 (90.1) 21 (9.9) 214 (1.1)
Maternal factors
Maternal age
 ≤ 18 years 965 (97.9) 20 (2.1) 985 (5.0)
 19–34 years 15,004 (98.8) 180 (1.2) 15,184 (77.3)
 35–49 years 3401 (98.1) 65 (1.9) 3466 (17.7)
Birth rank
 Primi 2947 (98.8) 35 (1.2) 2983 (15.2)
 Second to fourth pregnancy 8766 (99.0) 85 (1.0) 8852 (45.1)
 Fifth or higher pregnancy 7656 (98.1) 145 (1.9) 7801 (39.7)
Birth interval
 < 2 years 4778 (98.2) 89 (1.8) 4867 (24.8)
 ≥ 2 years 11,602 (98.8) 140 (1.2) 11,743 (59.9)
Antenatal factors
Desire for pregnancy
 Wanted then 17,188 (98.6) 236 (1.4) 17,423 (88.9)
 Wanted later 1172 (99.5) 6 (0.5) 1178 (6.0)
 Wanted no more 975 (98.6) 13 (1.4) 989 (5.1)
Antenatal care
 No 7322 (98.2) 136 (1.8) 7458 (38.1)
 Yes 12,007 (99.0) 117 (1.0) 12,124 (61.1)
Delivery factors
Delivery assistance
 Unskilled birth attendant 8919 (98.3) 152 (1.7) 9071 (46.3)
 Skilled delivery attendant 10,425 (99.0) 104 (1.0) 10,528 (53.7)
Place of delivery
 Home 17,614 (98.3) 181 (1.7) 10,795 (55.0)
 Hospital/health centre 8756 (99.0) 85 (1.0) 8841 (45.0)
Socioeconomic characteristics
Sex of the household head
 Male 19,132 (98.6) 265 (1.4) 19,397 (98.8)
 Female 238 (99.7) 1 (0.3) 239 (1.2)
Maternal education level
 No formal education 16,043 (98.5) 240 (1.5) 16,283 (82.9)
 Primary 1589 (99.6) 7 (0.4) 1596 (8.1)
 Secondary or higher 1738 (98.9) 19 (1.1) 1757 (9.0)
Paternal education level
 No formal education 11,006 (98.4) 174 (1.6) 11,180 (57.6)
 Primary 2830 (98.7) 36 (1.3) 2866 (14.8)
 Secondary or higher 5317 (99.0) 52 (1.0) 5369 (27.7)
Wealth status
 Poorest 3859 (98.6) 55 (1.4) 3914 (19.9)
 Poorer 3890 (98.2) 73 (1.8) 3963 (20.2)
 Middle 3953 (98.3) 67 (1.7) 4020 (20.5)
 Richer 4012 (98.9) 42 (1.0) 4055 (20.7)
 Richest 3656 (99.2) 29 (0.8) 3685 (18.8)
Community level variables
Antenatal care utilization
 Low 13,979 (98.5) 209 (1.5) 14,189 (72.3)
 High 5391 (99.0) 57 (1.0) 5447 (27.7)
Utilization of facility delivery
 Low 10,751 (98.4) 177 (1.6) 10,927 (55.6)
 High 8620 (99.0) 90 (1.0) 8710 (44.4)
Community education level
 Low 16,996 (98.5) 256 (1.5) 17,252 (87.9)
 High 2374 (99.6) 10 (0.4) 2385 (12.1)
Community poverty level
 Low 5021 (98.6) 73 (1.4) 5094 (25.9)
 High 14,349 (98.7) 193 (1.3) 14,543 (74.1)
Place of residence
 Urban 4528 (99.2) 37 (0.8) 4566 (23.3)
 Rural 14,842 (98.5) 229 (1.5) 15,071 (76.8)
Region
 North Eastern 2605 (97.7) 60 (2.3) 2665 (13.6)
 North Western 3715 (99.4) 21 (0.6) 3736 (19.0)
 Central Eastern 1579 (98.3) 28 (1.7) 1607 (8.2)
 Central 3475 (99.0) 34 (1.0) 3509 (17.9)
 Central Western 3168 (98.9) 34 (1.1) 3202 (16.3)
 Southern Eastern 2046 (97.9) 43 (2.1) 2089 (10.6)
 Southern Western 2782 (98.4) 44 (1.6) 2826 (14.4)
  1. a Row percentage, b Column percentage