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Table 1 General characteristics of studies included under review

From: Cost of diabetes mellitus in Africa: a systematic review of existing literature

Study characteristic Number Reference index in Additional file 3*
Year of publication
 2006–2010 8 5,8,9,11,13,18,22,25
 After 2010 18 1,2,3,6,7,4,10,12,14,15,16,17,18,20,21,23,24,26
Year of costing
 2000–2005 7 8,9,11,13,18,21,24
 2006–2010 6 1,6,12,14,17,22
 After 2010 9 3,7,10,15,16,19,23,25,26
 Not clear 4 2,4,5,20
No of African countries included in study
 One 22 1,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,14,15,16,17,18,19,21,22,23,25,25,26
 More than one 4 2,3,13,19
Region
 Central Africa 2 14.19
 Eastern Africa 6 5,6,11,16,19,23
 Northern Africa 2 4, 8
 Southern Africa 5 3,15,17,21,26
 Western Africa 13 1,2,3,7,9,10,12,18,19,20,22,24,25
 WHO African region 1 13
Cost Indicators
 Direct 26 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26
 Indirect costs 2 4.13
Perspective
 Not specified 10 4,5,7,8,9,11,16,17,21, 24
 Family/patient 7 2,10,12,14,18,19,20
 Societal 4 3,13,15,25
 Health system/institution 2 22.23
 Health system and patient 2 1.6
 Government 1 26
DM type
 Type 1 1 19
 Type 2 11 1,2,3,7,8,12,14,15,16,20,26
 Type 1 and Type 2 9 4,5,10,11,13,18,22,24,25
 Not specified 5 6,9,17,21,23
Sample sizes
 n.a 2 2.6
 not specified 2 19.23
 1–100 6 7,12,15,18,21,24
 101–1000 12 1,8,9,10,11,14,16,17,20,22,25,26
 1001–2000 1 5
  > 1000 000 3 3,4,13
Epidemiological approaches
 Prevalence 25 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26
 Incidence 1 3
Study focus
 General costs 21 1,2,3,4,5,8,10,11,12,13,15,16,17,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26
 Diabetic foot ulcer 3 6,7,18
 Drugs 2 9.14
Cost data source
 Hospital or medical centre 13 1,2,5,6,7, 9,11,17,19,21,22,23,24
 Patients 3 8,16, 20
 Not clear 3 14,18,25
 Hospital plus other government institutions 1 12
 Patients plus hospital 1 10
 Who publications and various individual country services 1 13
 Various data sources 4 3, 4, 15, 26
  1. *One study can fall into more than one category