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Table 3 Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and parenthood experiences: Example of derived integrative theme and original themes

From: Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and the experience of parenthood: a synthesis of the qualitative literature

Building resilience and strength by bridging language, norms and expectations “Feeling fortunate” [159] “Fathers’ Self-Identified Coping Skills/Support System and Effects on Their Families” [52] “Coherence and hope: past, present and future” [53] “Coping with costs of getting ahead: familism, strict parenting, cultural traditions and rituals” [39] “Benefits of living between two cultures” [38] “Personal resources: faith and spirituality” [161] “Community networks” [161] “Managing Work-Care Reconciliation: Formal and Informal Resources” [56] “Standing for myself: self-supporting, creating new roles and identities” [75] “Self-responsibility and self-advocacy” [19] “Community” [19] “Spiritual foundation” [19] “Family” [19] “Access to language proficiency” [19] “Extended family as resources” [138] “Relationships as resources” [58] “Spirituality” [58] “Cultural maintenance” [58] “Secure states of mind: weaving coherence and continuity into a fragmented life history” [163] “Community building within and across ethnic boundaries” [78] “Benefits of coming to Canada” [47] “Coping strategies and resources: developing/drawing on skills, seeking healthcare, using internal strategies, living with emotional state, using relational strategies (formal and informal), drawing on other strategies” [70] “Coping resources: dispositional, health, skills, social, tangible resources; 3-processes and facilitators: social inclusion processes, facilitators (financial, social, other)” [70] “Interventions: daycare, education, employment, food support, health care, housing, immigration support, psychosocial care, organizations/programs (community supports), social groups activities, welfare/financial assistance” [70] “Countering micro-aggressions” [91] “Ordinary nature of resilience” [42] “Dynamic process of resilience in each and every day” [42] “Overcoming Barriers and Building Bridging Capital = agency and optimism” [116] “Transforming suffering into life lessons” [165] “Fomenting Courage” [165] “Adapting to immigration and new environment” [162] “Meaningful, purposeful and enjoyable leisure as a means to adapting to new life Challenges” [162] “Family benefits and opportunities in coming to Canada” [61] “Parental resources and strategies (family siblings, religion and support)” [43] “Closeness and communication with extended family members” [44] “Motherhood as a turning point” [81] “Augmenting joy: mother pulling herself together” [94] “The ways in which mothers adapted to the post-migration setting and found new ways of parenting” [146] “Perceptions of the supports available” [25] “A deep sense of gratitude to this country” [142] “Symbolic meaning attached to the use of Spanish” [142] “Resistance Against Patriarchy” [45] “Modeling cultural heritage and religious socialization” [139] “Group solidarity” [139] “Confronting discrimination” [139] “Familial survival tools from the past carried into the present” [84] “Transmitting cultural values” [144] “Family closeness, family support” [144] “Language maintenance” [144] “It’s Most Important That You Spend Time with Your Child” [145] “Blood Is Thicker Than Water” – “The Close Kinship in Vietnamese Culture” [145] “Negotiating a seat at the table” [117] “Congolese Parents’ Strategies to Overcome Stereotypes” [127] “Parenting: Transmitting values and preparing her children for life” [129] “Importance of community” [128] “Learning English, bilingualism and empowerment” [96] “Importance of maintaining traditional practices” [154] “Model advocacy and advise children to advocate for their themselves and others” [164] “Social agency and transmitting values to the next generations” [20] “Engaging with advocacy networks” [21] “Taking the good with the bad in family life” [22] “Successful Confrontations” [104] “Supporting the Formal Education of Loved Ones in Their Own Ways” [136] “Valuing Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Bilingual Education” [136] “A Mother’s Agency: Mothers as Sources of Knowledge” [130] “Mothers as Information Seekers” [130] “Parenting Support and Service Provision Awareness” [158]