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Table 3 Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and parenthood experiences: Example of derived integrative theme and original themes

From: Refugees, asylum-seekers and undocumented migrants and the experience of parenthood: a synthesis of the qualitative literature

Building resilience and strength by bridging language, norms and expectations “Feeling fortunate” [159]
“Fathers’ Self-Identified Coping Skills/Support System and Effects on Their Families” [52]
“Coherence and hope: past, present and future” [53]
“Coping with costs of getting ahead: familism, strict parenting, cultural traditions and rituals” [39]
“Benefits of living between two cultures” [38]
“Personal resources: faith and spirituality” [161]
“Community networks” [161]
“Managing Work-Care Reconciliation: Formal and Informal Resources” [56]
“Standing for myself: self-supporting, creating new roles and identities” [75]
“Self-responsibility and self-advocacy” [19]
“Community” [19]
“Spiritual foundation” [19]
“Family” [19]
“Access to language proficiency” [19]
“Extended family as resources” [138]
“Relationships as resources” [58]
“Spirituality” [58]
“Cultural maintenance” [58]
“Secure states of mind: weaving coherence and continuity into a fragmented life history” [163]
“Community building within and across ethnic boundaries” [78]
“Benefits of coming to Canada” [47]
“Coping strategies and resources: developing/drawing on skills, seeking healthcare, using internal strategies, living with emotional state, using relational strategies (formal and informal), drawing on other strategies” [70]
“Coping resources: dispositional, health, skills, social, tangible resources; 3-processes and facilitators: social inclusion processes, facilitators (financial, social, other)” [70]
“Interventions: daycare, education, employment, food support, health care, housing, immigration support, psychosocial care, organizations/programs (community supports), social groups activities, welfare/financial assistance” [70]
“Countering micro-aggressions” [91]
“Ordinary nature of resilience” [42]
“Dynamic process of resilience in each and every day” [42]
“Overcoming Barriers and Building Bridging Capital = agency and optimism” [116]
“Transforming suffering into life lessons” [165]
“Fomenting Courage” [165]
“Adapting to immigration and new environment” [162]
“Meaningful, purposeful and enjoyable leisure as a means to adapting to new life Challenges” [162]
“Family benefits and opportunities in coming to Canada” [61]
“Parental resources and strategies (family siblings, religion and support)” [43]
“Closeness and communication with extended family members” [44]
“Motherhood as a turning point” [81]
“Augmenting joy: mother pulling herself together” [94]
“The ways in which mothers adapted to the post-migration setting and found new ways of parenting” [146]
“Perceptions of the supports available” [25]
“A deep sense of gratitude to this country” [142]
“Symbolic meaning attached to the use of Spanish” [142]
“Resistance Against Patriarchy” [45]
“Modeling cultural heritage and religious socialization” [139]
“Group solidarity” [139]
“Confronting discrimination” [139]
“Familial survival tools from the past carried into the present” [84]
“Transmitting cultural values” [144]
“Family closeness, family support” [144]
“Language maintenance” [144]
“It’s Most Important That You Spend Time with Your Child” [145]
“Blood Is Thicker Than Water” – “The Close Kinship in Vietnamese Culture” [145]
“Negotiating a seat at the table” [117]
“Congolese Parents’ Strategies to Overcome Stereotypes” [127]
“Parenting: Transmitting values and preparing her children for life” [129]
“Importance of community” [128]
“Learning English, bilingualism and empowerment” [96]
“Importance of maintaining traditional practices” [154]
“Model advocacy and advise children to advocate for their themselves and others” [164]
“Social agency and transmitting values to the next generations” [20]
“Engaging with advocacy networks” [21]
“Taking the good with the bad in family life” [22]
“Successful Confrontations” [104]
“Supporting the Formal Education of Loved Ones in Their Own Ways” [136]
“Valuing Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Bilingual Education” [136]
“A Mother’s Agency: Mothers as Sources of Knowledge” [130]
“Mothers as Information Seekers” [130]
“Parenting Support and Service Provision Awareness” [158]