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Table 2 Summary of “push” and “pull” factors on the migration of health workers

From: Empirically evaluating the WHO global code of practice on the international recruitment of health personnel’s impact on four high-income countries four years after adoption

Push factors encouraging emigration from source countries include:
 • Poor remuneration
 • Concerns for personal safety
 • Few career prospects and opportunities for promotion
 • Poor working conditions and heavy workload
 • Poor living conditions
Pull factors encouraging immigration to destination countries include:
 • Better remuneration
 • Safer environment
 • Professional development and career advancement opportunities
 • Improved working conditions and facilities
 • Higher standards of living