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Table 5 Cost of diabetes complications in Thailand

From: Diabetes management in Thailand: a literature review of the burden, costs, and outcomes

Cost of complications Summary of the main features of the study References
Median cost per year (USD$ at 2008 prices) of diabetes for patients: Study year: 2007-2008 [60]
With complications: USD$ 480 (n = 148, SD = 3,023) Setting: Waritchaphum hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province (North-East Thailand)
Without complications: USD$ 115 (n = 327, SD = 2,648) Sample and study design: 475 randomly selected diabetic patients
Independent: USD$ 124 (n = 411, SD = 2,152)  
Any level of disability: USD$ 811 (n = 61, SD = 4,982)  
Mildly disabled: USD$ 668 (n = 51, SD = 3,848)  
Moderate disability: USD$ 2,374 (n = 7, SD = 7,940)  
Severely disabled: USD$ 4,891 (n = 1, SD = 0)  
Very severely disabled: USD$ 4,378 (n = 5, SD = 7,622)  
Average spending per hospital admission as percentage of GDP per capita and in USD (constant 2000): Study year: 2006-2008 [61] USD equivalents of the percentage of GDP spent per hospital admission were calculated by the authors using GDP data (USD constant 2000, 2,712 in 2007) from The World Bank.
Total: 62% (USD$ 1682) Setting: University hospital in Bangkok
without complications: 49% (USD$ 1,329) Sample and study design: The study included all 8,596 (94% insured, 6% uninsured) DM patients admitted in the hospital during 2006-2008. Retrospective data analysis.
with myocardial infarction: 108% (USD$ 2,930)  
with congestive heart failure: 93% (USD$ 2523)  
with peripheral vascular disease: 116% (USD$ 3147)  
with ulcer: 106% (USD$ 2,876)  
with hemiplegia: 63% (USD$ 1,709)  
with moderate/severe renal disease: 90% (USD$ 2,442)  
Median cost of illness per year: Study year: 2007-2008 [37] same study as [60]
With complications USD$ 480 (n = 148, IQR = 129-1552) Setting: Waritchaphum hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province (North-East Thailand)
Without complications USD$ 115 (n = 327, IQR = 74-286) Sample and study design: 475 randomly selected diabetic patients. Micro-costing approach.
With microvascular complications USD$ 641 (n = 59, IQR = 207-2,268)  
With macrovascular complications USD$ 367 (n = 11, IQR = 111-2,463)  
With micro- and macrovascular complications USD$ 666 (n = 11, IQR = 201-2,707)  
With microvascular complications and cataract USD$ 745 (n = 23, IQR = 376-1,358)  
Cataract USD$ 151 (n = 44, IQR = 94-587)  
Predicted cost per year of DM T2 (N = 186): Study year: 2001 [52]
without complications USD$ 101 (BHT 4,037) Setting: 30-bed public hospital in central Thailand
with hypertension USD$ 117 (BHT 4,686) Sample and study design: 186 diabetic patients. Retrospective prevalence-based cost of illness study. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict cost of DM for various types of complications.
with hyperlipidaemia USD$ 144 (BHT 5,775)  
with diabetic foot USD$ 190 (BHT 7,603)  
with hyperglycaemia USD$ 209 (BHT 8,369)  
with hypoglycaemia USD$ 247 (BHT 9,860)  
with cerebrovascular accident USD$ 260 (BHT 10,418)  
with gangrene USD$ 336 (BHT 13,417)  
(40 THB = 1 USD$ at 2011 prices)   
  1. Notes: SD: standard deviation, IQR: inter-quartile range.