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Table 3 Associations of work stress with prospective depressive symptoms (multivariate logistic regression analyses)

From: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress at work among older employees in three continents

   Depressive Symptoms (2006)
   USA EUROPE
Effort-reward imbalance (2004) Model1 1.94 (1.21 – 3.13) ** 1.79 (1.53 – 2.09) ***
  N= 683 6063
  Model2 + symptoms 2004 1.53 (0.91 – 2.57) 1.51 (1.28 – 1.78) ***
  N= 673 6034
Low control (2004) Model1 1.65 (1.03 – 2.63)* 1.57 (1.34 – 1.84) ***
  N= 714 6246
  Model2 + symptoms 2004 1.46 (0.88 – 2.45) 1.42 (1.20 – 1.68) ***
  N= 704 6213
  1. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Longitudinal data.
  2. Odds Ratios are adjusted for gender, age, education, employment status, working hours in model 1.
  3. In model 2 outcome depression at follow up is additionally adjusted for depressive symptoms at baseline.
  4. Given the multilevel structure of the European data, we applied multilevel methods where individuals (level 1) are nested within countries (level 2).
  5. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001.