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Table 1 The 4Rs of Ethically Sound Research

From: Fly-By medical care: Conceptualizing the global and local social responsibilities of medical tourists and physician voluntourists

Ethical Principle Strategy
Respect Valuing cultures' and communities' diverse knowledges regarding health matters and developing knowledge that contributes to communities' and cultures' health and wellbeing
Relevance Ensuring that research (or practice) is relevant to the culture and community
Reciprocity Incorporating a two-way process of knowledge exchange and learning, where all parties benefit from these opportunities and the development of relationships
Responsibility Fostering empowerment through allowing for active participation and rigorous engagement by all parties
  1. Source: Kirkness & Barnhardt 2001 [63]