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Table 2 Descriptive Statistics

From: Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

  Developing Countries Historically High-Income Countries Difference** (Developing - High-Income)
  Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.   
  N = 166 N = 244   
IHD mortality rate (per 100,000)* 753 624 1,144 512 -392
Stroke mortality rate (per 100,000)* 413 307 723 307 -310
Per-capita palm oil consumption (kg) 3.5 5.1 4.3 8.2 -0.8
Per-capita tobacco consumption (pieces) 1,052 857 1,398 687 -345
Per-capita coconut oil consumption (kg) 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 0.1
Per-capita beef consumption (kg) 19 8.9 24 13 -4.9
Per-capita milk consumption (kg) 86 59 104 39 -18
Per-capita butter consumption (kg) 3.5 4.1 4.5 3.6 -1.0
Per-capita cheese consumption (kg) 3.8 4.4 9.1 4.9 -5.3
Per-capita pork consumption (kg) 17.2 14 30 11.4 -13
Per-capita chicken consumption (kg) 9.5 4.7 18 9.5 -8.0
Per-capita GDP (2005 international $)*** 7,914 3,927 23,081 5,230 -15,167
  1. Data: USDA statistics on country-specific consumption of agricultural commodities (domestic dietary palm oil consumption, domestic consumption of manufactured tobacco products, domestic consumption of other major sources of saturated fat); WHO Mortality Database; World Bank's World Development Indicators, 1980-1997.
  2. * Mortality rates for IHD and stroke are calculated for each country/jurisdiction's population of individuals aged 50 years and older.
  3. ** All differences significant (t-test) at p < 0.05 except per-capita palm oil consumption and per-capita coconut oil consumption
  4. *** Per-capita GDP calculated using purchasing power parity (PPP)
  5. We report the number of observations (N) at the country-year level.
  6. There are 10 "developing economies" (countries that have grown in wealth since the 1970s) and 13 "high-income countries" (countries that have been historically wealthy since the 1970s) in the data set.