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Table 1 Health systems in comparison [3]

From: Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia





Organizational structure

Pockets of excellence in some private Bangkok hospitals

Growing private health sector with movement of qualified workforce

Balanced public-private mix, corporatized public sector

National strategy

Regional health hub

Industrial strategy to develop tourism

Economic growth strategy to develop biomedical industries


Extensive tourism infrastructure


Regional service hub


Medical R&D support

Policy impact

Issues of growing inequity and urban-rural divide

Public-private divide

Narrow income gaps of public and private sectors


Racial inequities between public and private sectors