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Table 1 Determinants of population health

From: The health impacts of globalisation: a conceptual framework

Level/ Nature General determinants More detailed determinants
Contextual level 
Institutional Institutional infrastructure Governance structure Political environment System of law Regulation
Economic Economic infrastructure Occupational structure Tax system Markets
Social-cultural Culture Religion Ideology Customs
  Population Population size Structure Geographical distribution
  Social infrastructure Social organisation Knowledge development Social security Insurance system Mobility and communication
Environmental Ecological settings Ecosystems Climate
Distal level
Institutional Health policy Effective public health policy Sufficient public health budget
  Health-related policies Effective food policy Effective water policy Effective social policy Effective environmental policy
Economic Economic development Income/wealth Economic equity
  Trade Trade in goods and services Marketing
Social-cultural Knowledge Education and literacy Health education Technology
  Social interactions Social equity Conflicts Travel and migration
Environmental Ecosystem goods and services Habitat Information Production Regulation
Proximal level
Institutional Health services Provision of and access to health services
Economic - -
Social-cultural Lifestyle Healthy food consumption patterns Alcohol and tobacco use Drug abuse Unsafe sexual behaviour Physical activity Stress coping Child care Lifestyle related endogen factors (blood pressure, obesity, cholesterol levels)
  Social environment Social support and informal care Intended injuries and abuse/violence
Environmental Food and water Sufficient quality Sufficient quantity Sanitation
  Physical environment Quality of the living environment (biotic, physical and chemical factors) Unintended injuries