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Table 3 Summary of sectoral impacts of AIDS

From: HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks

GDP [41, 42] • Annual decrease of between 2 and 4% with AIDS
Households [9] • Decreased household income • Increased expenditure on healthcare • More women and child-headed households • More vulnerable to poverty
Firms [9] • Increased healthcare costs • Greater absenteeism • Loss of skilled labour and institutional memory • Decreased demand for goods → decreased income • Lower staff morale → lower productivity
Agriculture [9] • Loss of agricultural workforce: • reduction in cultivated land → decreased yields • smaller harvest size and less crop variety • loss of agricultural knowledge • lower remittances sent home
Education [9] • Loss of teachers → reduction in supply and quality of educational facilities and services • Increased medical and staff training costs • Reduction in pupil numbers due to non-enrolment /sickness/deaths • Reversal in progress made in primary education
Health [9] • Absenteeism and deaths of health workers due to illness: • reduction in supply and quality of health services • increased training costs • erosion of knowledge base • Quality of care may suffer due to stigmatisation of HIV+ patients • Increased public health expenses → higher burden on private health care system • Increased demand for donor funding to address HIV/AIDS challenge • High demand for AIDS treatment crowds out treatment of other diseases
  1. 2Dixon, McDonald and Roberts (2002); Cornia and Zagonaria (2002)