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Table 3 Summary of sectoral impacts of AIDS

From: HIV/AIDS: global trends, global funds and delivery bottlenecks

GDP [41, 42] • Annual decrease of between 2 and 4% with AIDS
Households [9] • Decreased household income • Increased expenditure on healthcare
• More women and child-headed households
• More vulnerable to poverty
Firms [9] • Increased healthcare costs
• Greater absenteeism
• Loss of skilled labour and institutional memory
• Decreased demand for goods → decreased income
• Lower staff morale → lower productivity
Agriculture [9] • Loss of agricultural workforce:
• reduction in cultivated land → decreased yields
• smaller harvest size and less crop variety
• loss of agricultural knowledge
• lower remittances sent home
Education [9] • Loss of teachers → reduction in supply and quality of educational facilities and services
• Increased medical and staff training costs
• Reduction in pupil numbers due to non-enrolment /sickness/deaths
• Reversal in progress made in primary education
Health [9] • Absenteeism and deaths of health workers due to illness:
• reduction in supply and quality of health services
• increased training costs
• erosion of knowledge base
• Quality of care may suffer due to stigmatisation of HIV+ patients
• Increased public health expenses → higher burden on private health care system
• Increased demand for donor funding to address HIV/AIDS challenge
• High demand for AIDS treatment crowds out treatment of other diseases
  1. 2Dixon, McDonald and Roberts (2002); Cornia and Zagonaria (2002)