1) The OECD describes multinational enterprises, discussed in this paper as multinational companies or multinational corporations (MNCs), as "companies or other entities whose ownership is private, state or mixed, established in different countries and so linked that one or more of them may be able to exercise a significant influence over the activities of others and, in particular, to share knowledge and resources with the others." 
2) Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) refer to enterprises usually with 250 or less employees who mainly operate in one country or a single well defined geographic region.
3) Packaged foods, as defined by Euromonitor, include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks.
4) Cadbury became a part of Kraft in 2010; Cadbury company shares are listed separately from Kraft in 2009 packaged food data.
5) The Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) was started in 2006 by the Council of Better Business Bureaus to allow food and beverage companies to have transparent advertising self-regulation (CFBAI, 2010).
6) The European Union (EU) pledge was started in 2007 to change food and beverage advertising to children and includes eleven company members (EU Pledge, n.d.).
7) Seven companies operating in the Gulf Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) signed a pledge in 2010 to restrict marketing and advertising to children under 12 (Yale, 2010).
8) In 2009, the International Council of Beverages Associations (ICBA) implemented a pledge on marketing to children under 12; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo are members.