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Table 3 Corporate Health Impact Assessment Framework

From: Assessing the health impacts of transnational corporations: a case study of Carlton and United Breweries in Australia

A: TNCs and regulation
Global/Regional:
Regulatory environment; Political & economic environment; International institutions
Successive, strategic corporate restructures, sales and acquisitions.
Limited number of TNCs dominating market/market concentration - commercial power and increased resources for marketing and lobbying. (−)
Lack transparency – difficulty in monitoring activities (−)
Corporate consumption complex
National:
Regulatory environmental; Political & economic environment; Status & capabilities of national government; Social & economic inequalities
Neoliberal regulatory environment – limited regulation and prioritisation of private interests over population health and equity (−)
Strong trade associations (ABA, AHA) and lobbying Group (BAA) (−)
Voluntary Codes of Conduct and limited regulation lacks both independent review and monitoring and consequential sanctions for non-compliance (−)
Sub-national/Local:
Regulatory environment; Regions or population groups especially affected by TNC.
Powerful influence on local level licensing (−)
B: TNCs: Health and equity impacts
Structure: Global and national operational structure and size of TNC; supply chain
Political practices:
Actions to influence: Global regulatory or political environment; National regulatory or political environment; Role of industry bodies; Taxation structures; Media
Regulatory capture through lobbying and close industry political relationships (−*##LT)
ABA advocates for policies and regulations that target specific at-risk groups rather than broader population-based initiatives (−**##LT)
AHA – track record opposing public health measures (−***###LT)
Business practices:
Control over supply chain; Labour practices; Taxation payments/profit shifting; Use of litigation; Use of trade/investment treaties to influence national regulations
Multiple ownership and concentration of power changes (−*##LT)
Sustainability goals (+*#LT)
Products, distribution and marketing:
Product types, trends, proportions; Export vs domestic sale; Marketing methods & strategies
Sponsorship of sporting codes provides financial support to sports encouraging physical activity but creates positive link between sport and alcohol consumption (+, −**##LT)
Marketing of low alcohol potentially targeting young people (−**##LT)
Marketing promoting drinking culture/family friendly (−***##LT)
Opposition to pregnancy labelling and other warnings (−**##LT)
C: TNC impacts on life domains
Workforce & work conditions
Workforce; Wages; Health & safety; Living conditions
Investment in sustainable operations (+* LT##)
Employment opportunities (+**I,LT)
equal pay and inclusive parental leave (+*I,LT##)
Work heath and safety standard (+**I,LT##)
Senate enquiry avoidance fair work act (−*,I)
Social conditions
Local goods & services; Local community life
Philanthropic activities benefiting communities (+*I#)
Social benefits of alcohol consumption (+**I#)
Negative impacts on community life (violence, alcohol related harm) (−***I,LT###)
Police, ambulance, hospital, and alcohol treatment services, and child protection systems (− ***I,LT ###)
Positive relationship between alcohol and gambling (− ***I,LT ##)
Natural environment
Ecological systems; Land, water, GHG emissions, pollutants
Commitment to reducing environmental footprint (+ * LT#)
High water useage in production (−*I,LT##)
Adverse health impacts
Food consumption; Cost of goods
45% share of alcohol consumption and related direct and indirect impacts (− ***I,LT###)
Disproportionate impacts (− **I,LT###)
Economic conditions
Impacts on national or local economy; Public revenue; Local production systems
Employs 1700 staff (+**I#)
Tax contribution (+**I#)
However externalised industry costs (health, lost productivity etc) (−***I,LT###)
Assess potential health impacts from TNCs activities on: area of impact, type of impact (+ve, −ve), populations affected, size of impact, likelihood (if prospective), timing (urgency) is this fair or avoidable?
Likelihood
Possible * May happen. Plausible, but with limited evidence to support
Probable ** More likely to happen than not. Direct evidence from limited sources
Definite ***-Strong direct evidence from multiple sources
Health and Health Equity Impact significance
Minor # – minimal impact
Moderate ## – Some impact
Major ###– very significant
Timing
Immediate - ILong term -LT
D. Recommendations
Recommendations for legislation / policy / practice including who is responsible for taking action, the likelihood that action can be taken, timeframes for taking action