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Table 3 Corporate Health Impact Assessment Framework

From: Assessing the health impacts of transnational corporations: a case study of Carlton and United Breweries in Australia

A: TNCs and regulation


Regulatory environment; Political & economic environment; International institutions

Successive, strategic corporate restructures, sales and acquisitions.

Limited number of TNCs dominating market/market concentration - commercial power and increased resources for marketing and lobbying. (−)

Lack transparency – difficulty in monitoring activities (−)

Corporate consumption complex


Regulatory environmental; Political & economic environment; Status & capabilities of national government; Social & economic inequalities

Neoliberal regulatory environment – limited regulation and prioritisation of private interests over population health and equity (−)

Strong trade associations (ABA, AHA) and lobbying Group (BAA) (−)

Voluntary Codes of Conduct and limited regulation lacks both independent review and monitoring and consequential sanctions for non-compliance (−)


Regulatory environment; Regions or population groups especially affected by TNC.

Powerful influence on local level licensing (−)

B: TNCs: Health and equity impacts

Structure: Global and national operational structure and size of TNC; supply chain

Political practices:

Actions to influence: Global regulatory or political environment; National regulatory or political environment; Role of industry bodies; Taxation structures; Media

Regulatory capture through lobbying and close industry political relationships (−*##LT)

ABA advocates for policies and regulations that target specific at-risk groups rather than broader population-based initiatives (−**##LT)

AHA – track record opposing public health measures (−***###LT)

Business practices:

Control over supply chain; Labour practices; Taxation payments/profit shifting; Use of litigation; Use of trade/investment treaties to influence national regulations

Multiple ownership and concentration of power changes (−*##LT)

Sustainability goals (+*#LT)

Products, distribution and marketing:

Product types, trends, proportions; Export vs domestic sale; Marketing methods & strategies

Sponsorship of sporting codes provides financial support to sports encouraging physical activity but creates positive link between sport and alcohol consumption (+, −**##LT)

Marketing of low alcohol potentially targeting young people (−**##LT)

Marketing promoting drinking culture/family friendly (−***##LT)

Opposition to pregnancy labelling and other warnings (−**##LT)

C: TNC impacts on life domains

Workforce & work conditions

Workforce; Wages; Health & safety; Living conditions

Investment in sustainable operations (+* LT##)

Employment opportunities (+**I,LT)

equal pay and inclusive parental leave (+*I,LT##)

Work heath and safety standard (+**I,LT##)

Senate enquiry avoidance fair work act (−*,I)

Social conditions

Local goods & services; Local community life

Philanthropic activities benefiting communities (+*I#)

Social benefits of alcohol consumption (+**I#)

Negative impacts on community life (violence, alcohol related harm) (−***I,LT###)

Police, ambulance, hospital, and alcohol treatment services, and child protection systems (− ***I,LT ###)

Positive relationship between alcohol and gambling (− ***I,LT ##)

Natural environment

Ecological systems; Land, water, GHG emissions, pollutants

Commitment to reducing environmental footprint (+ * LT#)

High water useage in production (−*I,LT##)

Adverse health impacts

Food consumption; Cost of goods

45% share of alcohol consumption and related direct and indirect impacts (− ***I,LT###)

Disproportionate impacts (− **I,LT###)

Economic conditions

Impacts on national or local economy; Public revenue; Local production systems

Employs 1700 staff (+**I#)

Tax contribution (+**I#)

However externalised industry costs (health, lost productivity etc) (−***I,LT###)

Assess potential health impacts from TNCs activities on: area of impact, type of impact (+ve, −ve), populations affected, size of impact, likelihood (if prospective), timing (urgency) is this fair or avoidable?


Possible * May happen. Plausible, but with limited evidence to support

Probable ** More likely to happen than not. Direct evidence from limited sources

Definite ***-Strong direct evidence from multiple sources

Health and Health Equity Impact significance

Minor # – minimal impact

Moderate ## – Some impact

Major ###– very significant


Immediate - ILong term -LT

D. Recommendations

Recommendations for legislation / policy / practice including who is responsible for taking action, the likelihood that action can be taken, timeframes for taking action