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Table 2 Taxonomy of Strategies used by the Tobacco, Alcohol and SSB Industries

From: Strategies to expand corporate autonomy by the tobacco, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverage industry: a scoping review of reviews

  Tobacco (N = 28) Alcohol (N = 14) SSBs (N = 10) Multi-industry (N = 7)
Influencing government policy making and implementation     
Lobbying 13 6 3 5
Revolving door 1 1 1 0
Policy capture 1 2 0 2
Intimidation, incentives & bribery 7 4 2 2
Developing/promoting alternative solutions 2 2 0 0
Influencing voters and the general public 7 1 0 1
Challenging Unfavorable Science     
Shaping the evidence-base 12 7 4 1
Infiltrate the public health scientific community 1 1 0 0
Hiding industry role in research 2 1 0 0
Creating a positive image     
Corporate social responsibility 8 7 4 3
Offering voluntary self-regulation 3 4 1 1
Issue framing 1 3 1 1
Targeted marketing 6 3 1 2
Creating “healthier” products 3 0 0 1
Manipulating Markets     
Manipulating cost 3 0 3 1
Economic framings 7 0 0 2
Undermining tax policies 2 0 1 1
Illicit trade and smuggling 6 1 0 1
Mounting Legal Challenges     
Litigation 8 1 1 1
Using trade agreements/investment law to challenge national policies 2 0 1 1
Trade Framing 0 0 0 1
Preemption 2 0 0 0
Anticipating future scenarios     
Expanding into emerging markets 2 0 2 1
Monitoring and discrediting public health proponents 2 0 1 0