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Table 2 Summary of key findings on climate-disease associations, climate change impacts on disease and adaptation strategies by geographic region and relationship

From: Charting the evidence for climate change impacts on the global spread of malaria and dengue and adaptive responses: a scoping review of reviews

Climate-disease associations:
 ENSO variability associated with malaria epidemics: African region [25]
Increased rainfall and temperature associated with malaria epidemics: South Africa [23], East African highlands [25], South America [26], Iran [28], Nepal [35]
 Temperature limits malaria vector occurrence and abundance: Europe [32]
 Humidity associated with malaria transmission: Pakistan [30, 31], Iran [28]
 ENSO variability and dengue incidence: South America [26], Asia-Pacific [38, 40]
 Variations in temperature, precipitation, and dengue incidence: Peurto Rico [27], Pakistan [29,30,31], China [36, 37, 39], Malaysia [14]
Climate change impacts on disease:
 Increased malaria transmission suitability at higher altitudes: African highlands, Latin America, Southeast Asia [4, 17, 24], Western Pacific [48], Nepal [35]
 Latitudinal expansion of Anopheles mosquitoes: Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Central and Eastern Europe [15], China [39]
 Increasing Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission suitability: UK [33], Europe [15]
 Reduced malaria transmission suitability due to extreme temperatures: Philippines [34]
 Expansion of Aedes mosquitoes to higher altitudes: Nepal [35]
 Increased dengue transmission suitability: African region [24], China [37]
 Latitudinal expansion of Aedes mosquitoes: Europe [32], South America [26], UK [33]
Adaptation strategies:
 Enhanced surveillance for non-native vectors: UK [33]
 Malaria early warning systems (MEWS): South Africa [16], African region [25], Philippines [34]
 Environmental management and enhanced vector control: UK [33], Pacific region [38]
 Early warning systems for dengue outbreaks: Philippines [34]
 Predictive models of future climate change impacts: UK [33]
 National adaptation planning and health systems strengthening: Nepal [35]