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Table 1 (Dis)continuity of routine MCVs during maternal and newborn health continuum of care in Nepal, 2016 (N=1,978)

From: Universal coverage of the first antenatal care visit but poor continuity of care across the maternal and newborn health continuum among Nepalese women: analysis of levels and correlates

social determinants Frequency Had less than 4ANC visits (%) Had 4ANC visits but no ID (%) Had 4ANC visits and ID but no PNC visit (%) Had 4ANC visits ID and PNC visit (%) p
Structural       
Wealth status       
Lower (40%) 832 35.1 26.2 8.6 30.0 <0.001
Upper (60%) 1,146 24.8 12.7 14.3 48.2  
Ethnicity       
Disadvantaged 1,374 34.3 19.6 11.3 34.8 <0.001
Advantaged 604 17.6 15.5 13.4 53.6  
Religion       
Others 306 39.1 16.2 10.1 34.5 0.056
Hindu 1672 27.3 18.8 12.2 41.7  
Maternal education       
Illiterate 570 46.5 20.2 8.8 24.6 <0.001
Primary 391 36.5 24.9 10.0 28.6  
Secondary or more 1,016 16.6 14.8 14.4 54.1  
Maternal occupation       
Not working 928 32.9 13.7 12.9 40.5 <0.001
Agriculture 823 27.6 25.0 10.0 37.3  
Working paid 227 19.2 13.6 14.5 52.7  
Perceived violence       
No 1,397 27.8 18.1 11.2 42.9 0.044
Yes 581 32.4 19.0 13.7 34.9  
Decision-making       
No 1,324 30.9 18.9 11.6 38.6 0.111
Yes 654 25.6 17.3 12.6 44.5  
Household head       
Male 1,438 30.4 18.9 12.2 38.6 0.073
Female 540 25.9 17.0 11.2 45.9  
Intermediary
Language       
Nepali 839 19.8 17.8 13.2 49.2 <0.001
Maithili 360 32.4 24.5 11.2 32.0  
Bhojpuri 267 54.4 12.1 12.2 21.3  
Others 512 29.1 18.2 10.1 42.6  
Residence       
Urban 1,062 24.5 14.0 13.5 48.0 <0.001
Rural 916 34.6 23.4 10.0 32.0  
Provinces       
One 338 21.2 23.0 8.3 47.5 <0.001
Two 513 42.0 19.2 12.0 26.9  
Bagmati 312 24.2 14.2 10.7 50.9  
Gandaki 164 24.7 11.9 9.0 54.4  
Lumbini 364 25.3 19.5 13.5 41.7  
Karnali 121 45.4 22.0 9.0 23.6  
Sudurpaschim 166 16.0 15.5 23.0 45.5  
Region       
Mountain 131 28.3 30.5 3.4 37.8 0.001
Hills 760 23.8 18.2 11.7 46.3  
Terai 1,087 33.0 17.0 13.1 36.9  
Maternal age (years)       
<19 291 25.8 15.7 16.9 41.6 0.146
20-34 1,582 29.2 18.8 11.1 40.9  
≥35 106 37.7 19.7 10.2 32.4  
Birth order       
<4 1,678 24.9 17.7 13.3 44.1 <0.001
≥4 300 52.8 22.3 4.4 20.6  
Sex of index child       
Male 1,063 28.9 17.4 12.1 41.6 0.699
Female 915 29.5 19.5 11.7 39.4  
Access to bank account       
No 1,367 33.9 20.2 11.6 34.4 <0.001
Yes 611 18.6 14.3 12.7 54.4  
Media exposure       
No 911 40.0 22.6 9.5 27.8 <0.001
Yes 1,067 19.9 14.7 13.9 51.4  
Last child (index child)       
Unwanted 418 39.7 16.4 11.1 32.9 <0.001
Wanted 1,560 26.3 18.9 12.1 42.6  
Distance to HFs as a perceived problem       
No problem 763 23.0 13.6 12.2 51.3 <0.001
Big problem 1,215 33.0 21.4 11.8 33.8  
Health system
Perceived problem not having female providers       
No problem 562 22.1 14.1 10.7 53.1 <0.001
Big Problem 1,416 31.9 20.1 12.4 35.6  
Awareness of health mothers’ group       
No 1,340 32.5 17.7 11.5 38.3 <0.001
Yes 638 22.1 19.8 12.8 45.4  
Mode of delivery       
Normal 1,780 30.6 20.4 11.8 37.2 <0.001
 C-section 198 16.1 0 13.0 70.9  
  1. ID: institutional delivery, HF: health facility, HMG: health mothers’ group, p-values obtained from Fisher exact test. Other languages include (e.g., Tharu, Magar). Other religions include Buddha, Jain, Kirat, Christian.