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Table 3 Dimensions distinguishing nudges, boosts, and legal instruments

From: Tools for public health policy: nudges and boosts as active support of the law in special situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic

Dimension Nudges Boosts Law
Usual form Stimuli implemented in decision situation Acquisition of competencies Regulations or prescriptions
Intervention target audience Populations or individuals Populations or individuals Populations and groups
Implementing entity Private, governmental or non-governmental organizations Private, governmental or non-governmental organizations Legislature (authorized body)
Costs of implementation Low Moderate to high High
Individual level costs to follow Low Moderate to high Moderate to high
Implementation time Short Moderate High
Duration of action Effective during intervention Resulting competences may exist long after the intervention ends Effective during intervention
Autonomy There is a choice not to comply There is a choice not to comply Compliance is compulsory
Consequences of behavior inconsistent with policy-driven change Legally none, potentially social or economical Legally none, potentially social or economical Sanction or lack of permission to do something
Transparency Not necessarily transparent Necessarily transparent Necessarily transparent and publicly available