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Table 1 Aid effectiveness principles and potential challenges

From: Governing industry involvement in the non-communicable disease response in Kenya

Principle Universal Health, in general Health, industry initiatives Potential challenges for industry as development partner
Paris Declaration & Accra Agenda for Action (2005/2008) [23] UHC 2030 Global Compact (2018) [26] WHO Policy Brief for governments (2017) [21] Access Accelerated guiding principles for industry (2019) [30]
Program strategy Alignment “Donors base their overall support on partner countries’ national development strategies, institutions and procedures” “All partners should ensure their efforts are evidence-based and align with national priorities and policies” “Ensuring that initiatives abide by all national regulations; align with national health plans and other development plans and goals” “Align with government priorities and support national efforts to build sustainable access to NCD prevention, treatment and care services” • Corporate strategic interests might not align with country priorities.
• Preference for creating parallel company-controlled structures, over investing in adapting and improving existing systems.
Harmonization “Donors’ actions are more harmonized, transparent and collectively effective.” “Ensure coordination and alignment of health system strengthening efforts at global, regional and country levels and appropriate linkages with other sectors.” “Harmonization and coordination with existing programs and future initiatives should also take place to avoid duplication” “Build a collaborative network of member
companies, partner organizations, and other key stakeholders to share knowledge and support a more coordinated collective response to NCDs”
• Competition among companies for reputation and influence may impede willingness or ability to coordinate.
• Harmonization can be more costly and slower than independent action.
Ownership,
stakeholder inclusion
“Donors commit to respect partner country leadership and help strengthen their capacity to exercise it.”
“All partners - including donors,foundations and civil society - participate fully”
“Making health systems everybody’s business – with engagement of citizens, communities, civil society and private sector” “Decision-making should be open to the public and include NGOs and other non-governmental stakeholders.” “Foster collaboration and open communication with local stakeholders at all stages of program development, execution and evaluation” • Thorough stakeholder involvement requires additional time, investment, and complexity.
• Giving away control and influence can jeopardize any preconceived ideas and priorities for engagement.
Program implementation Managing by results “Developing countries and donors shift focus to development results and results get measured.” “Accountability for results” “Process for monitoring and evaluation has been established” “Apply appropriate monitoring and evaluation processes to understand how a program is contributing to its stated goal(s), including improved health, and broadly share learnings from successes and challenges” • Substantial investment of financial and management resources that many corporations are not willing to make.
Accountability “Enhance mutual accountability and transparency in the use of development resources” “All partners should … recognise their accountability to people and communities.” “Have strong mechanisms to ensure financial, performance, and public accountability” “Establish accountability measures, manage expectations, and build mutual understanding” • Fear the reputational effects of reporting negative results.
• Fear of sharing information considered proprietary.