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Table 2 Effects of FDI and trade on the prevalence of tobacco consumption (Baseline results)

From: Effects of foreign direct investment and trade on the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Africa: a panel study

  (1) (2)
Prevalence of tobacco use Prevalence of tobacco use
L.Prevalence of tobacco use 0.966*** 0.973***
(0.00966) (0.0129)
Tobacco tax 0.00310 0.00399
(0.00392) (0.00504)
L.Trade openness 0.572**  
(0.242)  
L.FDI inflows −0.0168** −0.0135*
(0.00650) (0.00677)
Income 0.00102 0.00109
(0.0168) (0.0135)
Education 0.00173 0.00221
(0.00319) (0.00322)
L.Imports   0.00405*
  (0.00238)
Constant −0.378 −0.368
(0.406) (0.377)
Observations 216 216
Countries 31 31
Instruments 22 22
AR(2) 0.937 0.425
AR(2) p-value 0.349 0.671
Hansen 4.188 6.919
Hansen p-value 0.899 0.646
F stat 6871.8 8170.2
F stat p-value 0.000 0.000
  1. Standard errors in parentheses; * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01; L. refers to the first lag of the respective variable; Year dummies are not reported for brevity. The null hypotheses of the Hansen and the AR (2) tests state the joint validity of the instruments and the absence of second-order serial correlation respectively [30, 32]