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Table 1 Measurements and expected signs of variables

From: Effects of foreign direct investment and trade on the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Africa: a panel study

Variable Definition/measurement Source Expected sign
Prevalence of tobacco consumption The percentage of people aged 15 years and above who currently use any tobacco product WB’s WDI Not applicable
FDI Net inflows of FDI as a percentage of GDP WB’s WDI +/−
Trade 1. Imports plus exports as a share of GDP (Trade openness)
2. Imports as a share of GDP
WB’s WDI +/−
Tobacco tax Total tax on a pack of 20 cigarettes expressed as a percentage of the retail cost (price) of the most popular (mostly sold) brand of cigarettes.
This indicator is used because we do not have data on tobacco taxes.
In addition, using cigarette tax to proxy tobacco tax is justified because according to the WHO [19], cigarettes are the most widely used tobacco products
Education Gross primary school enrolment as a ratio of the total population of individuals in the official age category for primary education WB’s WDI
Income Growth rate of per capita GDP WB’s WDI +/−
  1. ‘+’ means will increase the prevalence of tobacco consumption; ‘–’ means will decrease the prevalence of tobacco consumption