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Table 4 Predictors for coping among the study participants (based on the BRCS score)

From: COVID-19: Factors associated with psychological distress, fear, and coping strategies among community members across 17 countries

Characteristics Low (score 4-13) Medium to High (score 14-20) Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses
n % n % p ORs 95% CIs p AORs 95% CIs
Age groups 3247 42.8 4344 57.2       
 18-29 years 1581 43.3 2074 56.7 Ref Ref
 30-59 years 1543 42.8 2060 57.2 0.711 1.02 0.93-1.12 0.329 1.08 0.92-1.28
 ≥60 years 123 36.9 210 63.1 0.026 1.30 1.03-1.64 0.011 1.66 1.12-2.44
Gender 3640 43.2 4792 56.8       
 Male 1323 44.1 1675 55.9 Ref Ref
 Female 2317 42.6 3117 57.4 0.186 1.07 0.97-1.17 0.235 0.91 0.79-1.06
Born in the same country of residence 3635 43.2 4783 56.8       
 No 649 50.4 639 49.6 Ref Ref
 Yes 2986 41.8 4144 58.1 <0.001 1.41 1.25-1.59 0.124 0.85 0.69-1.05
Living status 3614 43 4784 56.9       
 Live without family members 812 42.7 1087 57.2 Ref Ref
 Live with family members 2802 43.1 3697 56.9 0.780 0.99 0.89-1.1 0.106 0.85 0.7-1.04
Highest educational/vocational qualification 3622 43.1 4783 56.9       
 Primary/Grade 1 to 6 30 50.8 29 49.2 Ref Ref
 Secondary/Higher Secondary/Grade 7 to 12 673 43.7 868 56.3 0.277 1.33 0.8-2.24 0.537 1.35 0.52-3.48
 Certificate/Diploma/Trade qualifications 409 47.2 458 57.7 0.585 1.16 0.69-1.96 0.871 1.08 0.42-2.81
 Bachelor/Masters/PhD 2510 42.3 3428 57.7 0.187 1.41 0.85-2.36 0.583 1.30 0.51-3.32
Current employment condition 3523 43.2 4639 56.8       
 Unemployed/Housewife/Home maker/Home duties (No source of income) 260 40.4 383 59.5 Ref Ref
 Jobs affected by COVID-19 (lost job/working hours reduced/afraid of job loss) 1734 42.1 2391 57.9 0.444 0.94 0.797-1.11 No estimate due to small number
 Have an income source (employed/Government benefits) 1529 45.1 1865 54.9 0.031 0.84 0.69-0.99 0.354 0.93 0.8-1.09
Perceived distress due to change of employment status 3095 40.6 4522 59.4       
 A little to none 1815 38.6 2889 61.4 Ref Ref
 Moderate to a great deal 1280 43.9 1633 56.1 <0.001 0.80 0.73-0.88 0.030 0.82 0.68-0.98
Improved working situation due to change of employment status 2291 39.4 3528 60.6       
 A little to none 1753 39.2 2717 60.8 Ref Ref
 Moderate to a great deal 538 39.8 811 60.1 0.662 0.98 0.86-1.1 0.342 1.09 0.92-1.28
Self-identification as a frontline or essential service worker 3646 43.2 4798 56.8       
 No 2155 42.9 2869 57.1 Ref Ref
 Yes 1491 43.6 1929 56.4 0.522 0.97 0.87-1.06 0.525 0.94 0.8-1.13
Self-identification as a healthcare worker 2482 39.5 3801 60.5       
 No 1578 41.1 2259 58.9 Ref Ref
 Yes, doctor 331 37.4 555 62.6 0.040 1.17 1.01-1.36 0.417 0.90 0.70-1.16
 Yes, nurse 371 35.9 661 64.1 0.003 1.24 1.08-1.44 0.029 1.30 1.03-1.65
 Yes, other healthcare worker 202 38.3 326 61.7 0.209 1.13 0.94-1.36 0.280 1.15 0.90-1.48
COVID-19 impacted financial situation 3663 43.2 4815 56.8       
 No impact 1613 42.8 2160 57.3 Ref Ref
 Yes, impacted positively 413 40.7 603 59.4 0.229 1.10 0.95-1.26 0.851 0.98 0.80-1.23
 Yes, impacted negatively 1637 44.4 2052 55.6 0.157 0.94 0.85-1.03 <0.001 1.37 1.16-1.62
Affected by the change in financial situation 2403 39.3 3712 60.7       
 Not at all 523 37.4 874 62.6 Ref Ref
 Unsure 385 42.4 523 57.6 0.017 0.81 0.69-0.96 0.004 0.74 0.60-0.90
 Somewhat 1051 37.9 1716 62 0.732 0.98 0.86-1.12 0.398 0.92 0.78-1.14
 A great extent 444 42.6 599 57.4 0.010 0.81 0.69-0.95 0.151 0.83 0.66-1.07
Co-morbidities 3630 43.4 4741 56.6       
 No 2458 41.4 3488 58.7 Ref Ref
 Psychiatric/Mental health problem 223 62.5 134 37.5 <0.001 0.42 0.33-0.52 0.431 0.85 0.57-1.27
 Other co-morbidities* 949 45.9 1119 54.1 <0.001 0.82 0.73-0.91 0.324 1.15 0.88-1.50
Co-morbidities 3321 41.7 4642 58.3       
 No 2458 41.3 3488 58.7 Ref Ref
 Single co-morbidity 674 43.6 873 56.4 0.113 0.91 0.81-1.02 0.149 0.82 0.62-1.09
 Multiple co-morbidities 189 40.2 281 59.8 0.633 1.05 0.87-1.27 No estimate due to small number
Perceived status of own mental health 2482 39.5 3801 60.5       
 Poor to Fair 913 52.1 839 47.8 Ref Ref
 Good to Excellent 1569 34.6 2962 65.4 <0.001 2.05 1.83-2.3 <0.001 1.97 1.70-2.30
Smoking 3665 43.2 4814 56.8       
 Never smoker 2912 42.2 3982 57.8 Ref Ref
 Ever smoker (Daily/Non-daily/Ex) 753 47.5 832 52.5 <0.001 0.81 0.72-0.90 0.533 1.06 0.88-1.28
Increased smoking over the last 6 months 447 44.2 565 55.8       
 No 234 43.7 301 56.3 Ref Ref
 Yes 213 44.6 264 55.4 0.770 0.96 0.75-1.23 Not included in multivariate model
Current alcohol drinking (last 4 weeks) 3595 43.1 4743 56.8       
 No 3089 41.6 4328 58.4 Ref Ref
 Yes 506 54.9 415 45.1 <0.001 0.59 0.50-0.66 0.532 0.93 0.74-1.17
Increased alcohol drinking over the last 6 months 499 54.7 413 45.3       
 No 310 48.4 330 51.7 Ref Not included in multivariate model
 Yes 189 69.5 83 30.5 <0.001 0.40 0.31-0.56
Contact with known/suspected case of COVID-19 3578 43 4739 56.9       
 No 2223 45.5 2662 54.5 Ref Ref
 Unsure 333 46.9 376 53 0.470 0.94 0.81-1.1 0.297 0.90 0.73-1.1
 Yes, had indirect contact 353 37.3 594 62.7 <0.001 1.41 1.21-1.63 0.004 1.33 1.10-1.62
 Yes, provided direct care 669 37.7 1107 62.3 <0.001 1.37 1.22-1.53 <0.001 1.45 1.19-1.77
Experience related to COVID-19 pandemic 3497 42.9 4652 57.1       
 No known exposure to COVID-19 2739 43.4 3580 56.6 Ref Ref
 Tested positive for COVID-19 184 37.3 310 62.7 0.008 1.29 1.07-1.56 0.259 0.86 0.65-1.12
 Tested negative for COVID-19 by self-isolated 480 42.4 651 57.6 0.571 1.03 0.91-1.18 0.012 0.78 0.64-0.95
 Had recent overseas travel history and was in quarantine 94 45.8 111 54.2 0.476 0.90 0.68-1.2 0.312 0.80 0.51-1.24
Self-identification as a patient (visited a healthcare provider in the last 6 months) 3564 42.9 4734 57.1       
 No 2466 44.4 3089 55.6 Ref Ref
 Yes 1098 40.1 1645 59.9 0.001 1.20 1.09-1.31 0.012 1.20 1.04-1.28
Healthcare service use in the last 6 months 1089 40 1633 59.9       
 In-person visit to a healthcare provider 730 38.5 1165 61.5 Ref Ref
 Telehealth consultation/Use of national helpline 277 43.5 359 56.5 0.025 0.82 0.67-0.97 Not included in multivariate model
 Used both services 82 42.9 109 57.1 0.234 0.83 0.62-1.13
Level of psychological distress (K10 categories) 3659 43.2 4814 56.8       
 Low (score 10-15) 1011 38.4 1622 61.6 Ref Ref
 Moderate to Very High (score 16-50) 2648 45.4 3192 54.6 <0.001 0.74 0.67-0.81 0.498 0.95 0.81-1.11
Level of fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S categories) 3665 43.2 4814 56.7       
 Low (score 7-21) 2647 41.2 3771 58.8 Ref Ref
 High (score 22-35) 1018 49.4 1043 50.6 <0.001 0.71 0.64-0.78 <0.001 0.72 0.61-0.85
Healthcare service use to overcome COVID-19 related stress in the last 6 months 3546 42.9 4718 57.1       
 No 3049 42.4 4134 57.6 Ref Ref
 Yes 497 45.9 584 54 0.030 0.87 0.76-0.99 0.375 0.91 0.75-1.12
  1. Adjusted for: age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, living status, place of birth, country, education, employment status, employment stress, healthcare worker, financial impact, contact with COVID-19 case, experience due to COVID-19 and self-identification as a patient