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Table 2 Matrix of relationships between stakeholder groups, identified in this study

From: Who influences nutrition policy space using international trade and investment agreements? A global stakeholder analysis

  Government CSOs, Media & Academia Private sector Trade partners IGOs
Government Intersectoral engagement between trade and health Balancing political priorities (e.g. export industries, FDI, public health nutrition). Provides government with information and holds government accountable
CSOs represent public (constituency) interests.
Direct lobbying: domestic companies and foreign investors have channels to give input on policy and TIA negotiations.
Under BITs and FTA investment chapters foreign investors may be able to raise ISDS disputes.
Bilateral political relationships (e.g. aid)
Parties to WTO, BITs, FTAs.
May pursue trade challenges to regulation through WTO and FTAs.
WHO and regional bodies provide best practice recommendations for health regulation. Codex Alimentarius provides guidelines for food regulation. WTO and FTAs have governments as parties to (binding) agreements, and governments must implement an adverse dispute outcome by revoking the health measure or face trade sanctions.
CSOs, Media & Academia Interaction between different CSO interests e.g. labour unions, health, etc. Sometimes offers funding (conflict of interest)
Private sector Regulates business practices within jurisdiction Monitor business practices Collaboration in industry associations and lobbying groups
Trade partners Bilateral political relationships (e.g. aid)
Parties to WTO, BITs, FTAs. May pursue (retaliatory) trade challenges to regulation through WTO and FTAs.
May apply pressure through global advocacy. Direct lobbying: domestic companies and foreign investors and have channels to give input on policy and TIA negotiations.
Companies may provide technical expertise and funds to raise trade disputes.
WTO and FTAs have governments as parties to (binding) agreements, and governments must implement an adverse dispute outcome by revoking (health) measure or face trade sanctions.
IGOs Membership:
WHO (WHA) and regional bodies consist of Member governments.
WTO and FTAs have governments as parties to the agreements.
Academia provides formal advice to WHO (technical committees).
CSOs can be Observers to Codex.
Industry groups are Codex Observers and advisors to Codex Members. Membership:
WHO (WHA) and regional bodies consist of Member governments.
WTO and FTAs have governments as parties to the agreements.
Codex co-sponsored by WHO and FAO.
Codex sets standards that are recognised by WTO.
  1. Abbreviations: FDI – Foreign direct investment, CSO – civil society organisation, IGO – inter-government organisation, BITs – bilateral investment treaties, FTA – free trade agreement, WTO – World Trade Organization, ISDS – investor-state dispute settlement, TIA – international trade and investment agreements, WHO – World Health Organization, WHA – World Health Assembly, FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  2. Note: cells describe ways that stakeholders listed on the X axis act upon those in the Y axis