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Table 1 Description and descriptive statistics of the inputs, outputs, efficiency and environmental variables

From: Efficiency in the governance of the Covid-19 pandemic: political and territorial factors

Variable Description Min Mean Median Max Standard deviation
Inputs
 Physicians Total number of physicians per thousand inhabitantsa 0.0140 1.9042 1.6090 7.1201 1.6125
 Nurses Total number of nurses, midwives and other associated personnel per thousand inhabitantsa 0.0737 4.5672 2.9460 19.4614 4.3775
 Hospital beds Beds available in public and private hospitals per thousand inhabitantsa 0.1000 2.8419 2.2000 13.4000 2.3871
 Health expenditure Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDPa 1.1812 6.5678 6.4294 17.0613 2.5149
Outputs
 Cases confirmed Total number of confirmed cases of Covid-19 per thousand inhabitants as February 1, 2021b 0.0088 20.5396 11.7416 92.5357 22.7485
 Death rate Total number of deaths with Covid-19 per thousand confirmed cases as February 1, 2021b 0.4871 20.5774 17.7672 85.1128 12.9607
Dependent variable
 Efficiency Own elaboration from DEA technique 0.6018 0.8965 0.9399 1.0000 0.1092
Environmental variables
 Europe Dummy variable that takes the value 1 if the country belongs to the European region established by the WHO and 0 otherwiseb 0.0000 0.2968 0.0000 1.0000 0.4583
 Americas Dummy variable that takes the value 1 if the country belongs to the American region established by the WHO and 0 otherwiseb 0.0000 0.1871 0.0000 1.0000 0.3913
 Asia Dummy variable that takes the value 1 if the country belongs to the regions of South-East Asia and Western Pacific established by the WHO and 0 otherwiseb 0.0000 0.1226 0.0000 1.0000 0.3290
 Africa Dummy variable that takes the value 1 if the country belongs to the regions of Africa and Eastern Mediterranean established by the WHO and 0 otherwiseb 0.0000 0.3935 0.0000 1.0000 0.4901
 Gender Dummy variable that takes the value 1 if the government leader is a woman and 0 if it is a manc 0.0000 0.1032 0.0000 1.0000 0.3052
 Ideology Dummy variable that takes the value 1 if the government leader’s ideology is conservative and 0 if it is progressivec 0.0000 0.4839 0.0000 1.0000 0.5014
 Voice Quality of freedom of expression, association, media, and citizen participation in the election of government, which takes values between 0 and 100d 2.4631 48.5238 45.3202 100.0000 28.4050
 Rule of law Society’s compliance with the rule of law, which takes values between 0 and 100d 0.4808 48.3468 46.1538 100.0000 28.6079
 Median age Median age of the populationf 15.1510 30.5919 30.2620 48.3580 9.3129
 GDP Forecast year-on-year change in gross domestic product at constant prices as a percentage for 2019e −35.0000 2.5109 2.3350 9.8900 4.1384
 Tourism Income from international tourism as a percentage of total exports in goods and servicesa 0.1888 13.7942 7.7834 85.2048 16.4688
 Unemployment Unemployment rate forecast for 2019e 0.2950 7.1966 7.1966 28.7000 3.7324
  1. aData from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator?tab=all Accessed February, 2021
  2. bData from https://covid19.who.int/table Accessed February, 2021
  3. cOwn elaboration after consulting web information about the country
  4. dData from http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/ Accessed February, 2021
  5. eData from https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2020/October Accessed February, 2021
  6. fData from https://population.un.org/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/ Accessed July, 2021