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Table 4 Literature on the three pathways of immunization impact on SDGs

From: Advancing sustainable development goals through immunization: a literature review

Mechanism of immunization impact on SDGs

Related SDGs


1. Protecting people and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases

Avoid disease cases and epidemics

Routine immunization & SIAs

Surveillance and outbreak response

SDG 3 Health & Wellbeing

SDG 3.2 reduce mortality

SDG 3.3 end epidemics

[3, 20, 21]

Provide essential health services to everyone and limit out-of-pocket health spending

SDG 3.8 provide universal health coverage

Emerging diseases, emergencies

SDG 3.d resilience

Improve individuals health and increase population productivity

SDG 8 Decent work and economic growth


Reduction of out-of-pocket health spending pushing people into poverty

SDG 1 End poverty

Prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases that reduce absorption of nutrients

SDG 2 Zero hunger

Improve livelihood in urban settlements

SDG 11 Sustainable cities

Prevent absenteeism due to disease

SDG 4 Education

Reduce the spread of HPV, Prevent mothers to stay home taking care of sick children

SDG 5 Gender equality

Avoiding inequity caused by epidemics

SDG 10 Reduced inequalities

2. Providing immunization services to everyone

Educate people on disease transmission, increase health-seeking behavior, including vaccine confidence

SDG 4 Quality education

[28, 29]

Reduce the spread of sexually transmitted infectious diseases (HIV, HPV) based on girls’ and women empowerment and easier access to immunization than to screening and treatment

SDG 5 Gender equality

Immunization aims at reaching marginalized and vulnerable populations, reducing the health impact from their socio-eco-demographic vulnerability

SDG10 Reduced inequalities

3. Creating the environment for health system development

Provide the resources and conditions to build capacity for strengthening national and regional public health systems, for immunization service delivery, disease surveillance, and early diagnosis, including in conflict-affected settings

SDG 9 Industry, innovation, infrastructure

SDG 16 Peace, justice, and strong institutions

SDG 17 Partnerships for the goals


Provide incentives for public-private partnerships and capacity building for local vaccine production

SDG 9 Industry, innovation, infrastructure

SDG 17 Partnerships for the goals

[33, 34]

Provides incentives for public-private partnerships for integrated health services such as family planning and nutrition services

SDG17 Partnerships for the goals