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Table 4 Literature on the three pathways of immunization impact on SDGs

From: Advancing sustainable development goals through immunization: a literature review

Mechanism of immunization impact on SDGs Related SDGs References
1. Protecting people and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases
Avoid disease cases and epidemics
Routine immunization & SIAs
Surveillance and outbreak response
SDG 3 Health & Wellbeing
SDG 3.2 reduce mortality
SDG 3.3 end epidemics
[3, 20, 21]
Provide essential health services to everyone and limit out-of-pocket health spending SDG 3.8 provide universal health coverage
Emerging diseases, emergencies SDG 3.d resilience
Improve individuals health and increase population productivity SDG 8 Decent work and economic growth [22,23,24,25,26,27]
Reduction of out-of-pocket health spending pushing people into poverty SDG 1 End poverty
Prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases that reduce absorption of nutrients SDG 2 Zero hunger
Improve livelihood in urban settlements SDG 11 Sustainable cities
Prevent absenteeism due to disease SDG 4 Education
Reduce the spread of HPV, Prevent mothers to stay home taking care of sick children SDG 5 Gender equality
Avoiding inequity caused by epidemics SDG 10 Reduced inequalities
2. Providing immunization services to everyone
Educate people on disease transmission, increase health-seeking behavior, including vaccine confidence SDG 4 Quality education [28, 29]
Reduce the spread of sexually transmitted infectious diseases (HIV, HPV) based on girls’ and women empowerment and easier access to immunization than to screening and treatment SDG 5 Gender equality
Immunization aims at reaching marginalized and vulnerable populations, reducing the health impact from their socio-eco-demographic vulnerability SDG10 Reduced inequalities
3. Creating the environment for health system development
Provide the resources and conditions to build capacity for strengthening national and regional public health systems, for immunization service delivery, disease surveillance, and early diagnosis, including in conflict-affected settings SDG 9 Industry, innovation, infrastructure
SDG 16 Peace, justice, and strong institutions
SDG 17 Partnerships for the goals
Provide incentives for public-private partnerships and capacity building for local vaccine production SDG 9 Industry, innovation, infrastructure
SDG 17 Partnerships for the goals
[33, 34]
Provides incentives for public-private partnerships for integrated health services such as family planning and nutrition services SDG17 Partnerships for the goals [35,36,37,38]