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Table 5 Examples of restrictiveness of selected cross-border health measures during COVID-19 pandemic

From: Managing borders during public health emergencies of international concern: a proposed typology of cross-border health measures

screening target population, stage(s) of journey, screening method, frequency, intended data use, exemptions Low
Germany: Carriers arriving from China, South Korea, Japan, Italy and Iran required to report health status of passengers before entering Germany. Information on Disease prevention distributed to passengers (28 February 2020) [94]
Taiwan: All arrivals required to complete health declaration and provide travel and contact history if visited China, Hong Kong or Macao within 14 days before entry (12 February 2020) [95]
Benin: All arrivals coming from countries affected by COVID-19 (including countries with only a single case of COVID-19) must identify themselves using hotline. Such persons must self-isolate for 14 days and may be subject to additional screening and/or relocation to a quarantine facility (10 March 2020) [96].
testing target population, stage(s) of journey, timing, frequency, type of test, liability for cost, exemptions Low
United Kingdom: No testing requirements for international arrivals until introduced on 18 January 2021 [97].
Norway: International arrivals must present proof of negative test for coronavirus taken less than 24 h prior to entry. Five categories of population are exempted (30 January 2021) [98]
Germany: Two-test strategy which provides for mandatory testing in connection with entry and, voluntary testing for early termination of quarantine at the earliest from the fifth day after entry. People who enter Germany after staying in “high incidence areas” and “virus variant areas” in the last 10 days before entry is obliged to bring proof that they are not infected with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus upon arrival. The test must be carried out at least 48 h before entry. If the persons could not obtain evidence, carriers can carry out or have a test carried out before departure. The smear for this test by the carrier may be made no more than 12 h before departure (2 February 2021) [99]
quarantine target populations, stage(s) of journey, length, location, voluntary versus mandatory, liability for cost, method of enforcement, exemptions Low
USA: CDC recommends international arrivals self-quarantine for 7 days after travel (18 February 2020) [100]
Canada: International arrivals by air required to undertake up to 3-day mandatory quarantine in designated hotels at traveller expense. If PCR test upon arrival negative, remaining quarantine completed at home with limited monitoring. International arrivals by land and sea required to undertake 14-day quarantine with limited monitoring (22 February 2021) [51]
Australia: Mandatory enforced 14-day quarantine introduced for all international arrivals (citizens primarily) who must pre-book one of limited slots in designated facility. Travellers pay cost of quarantine. Limited categories of exemption permitted to quarantine at home (29 March 2020) [101]
evidence of eligibility to travel target populations, categories of eligibility, cost of entry visa Low
USA: Foreign nationals who travelled to China within past 14 days banned from entry (2 February 2020) [102]
Estonia: Foreign workers in agricultural sector allowed to extend short-term work permit. Workers from other sectors excluded (21 April 2020) [103]
Philippines: Non nationals denied entry with exception of crew members, government and international organization officials, and “uniformed personnel for official business” (20 March 2020) [104]
Australia: International arrivals limited to Australian nationals and foreign nationals travelling for essential reasons. Cap of 1475 arrivals per day introduced (4 July 2020) [105]