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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study sample

From: COVID-19-related stigma and its sociodemographic correlates: a comparative study

  Healthy controls
(N = 194)
COVID-19 survivors
(N = 154)
Statistics
n % N % x2 df p
Male gender 40 20.6 67 43.5 21.12 1 < 0.001
Married 133 68.6 99 64.3 0.70 1 0.40
College and above 156 80.4 69 44.8 47.63 1 < 0.001
Living with family 148 76.3 119 77.3 0.05 1 0.83
Unemployed 10 5.2 35 22.7 23.55 1 < 0.001
Family members infected with COVID-19 5 2.6 105 68.2 170.92 1 < 0.001
Feel online mental service helpful 65 33.5 20 13.0 19.58 1 < 0.001
Obvious economic loss during the COVID-19 pandemic 25 12.9 59 38.3 30.31 1 < 0.001
Frequent use of social media 132 68.0 77 50.0 11.65 1 < 0.001
Perceived economic status 22.59 2 < 0.001
 Poor 38 19.6 66 42.9
 Fair 147 75.8 81 52.6
 Good 9 4.6 7 4.5
Perceived health status 8.09 2 0.018
 Poor 5 2.6 13 8.4
 Fair 88 45.3 77 50.0
 Good 101 52.1 64 41.6
  Mean SD Mean SD t / Z df p
Age (years) 35.7 9.0 42.2 13.7 5.03 252.13 a < 0.001
Fatigue total score 3.8 2.3 2.3 2.3 6.23 b < 0.001
PHQ-9 total score 5.3 5.3 6.2 6.0 1.35 b 0.18
Overall stigma 46.0 14.0 70.2 12.9 16.58 346 < 0.001
Social rejection 16.7 5.6 27.5 5.9 17.35 346 < 0.001
Financial insecurity 6.9 1.9 8.9 2.2 9.03 298.22 a < 0.001
Internalized shame 9.3 3.3 15.1 2.7 17.65 345.58 a < 0.001
Social isolation 13.2 4.3 18.7 4.0 12.37 346 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, SD standard deviation, QOL quality of life, PHQ-9 patient health questionnaire – 9 item, SIS social impact scale
  2. a: Satterthwaite corrected because of the heterogeneity of variance
  3. b: Wilcoxon rank sum test