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Table 1 Sample characteristics, prevalence rates of loneliness by socio-demographic and COVID-19 epidemic characteristics, and results of multiple logistic regression analysis on factors associated with loneliness

From: Feelings of loneliness and mental health needs and services utilization among Chinese residents during the COVID-19 epidemic

Characteristics Total sample (n = 7741), N (%, percentage among the total sample) Lonely residents (n = 1874), N (%, prevalence of loneliness) χ2 P OR (95% CI) P
Subpopulation Wuhan residents 2617 (33.8) 662 (25.3)     
  Migrants from Wuhan 930 (12.0) 253 (27.2)     
  Other Hubei residents 633 (8.2) 141 (22.3)     
  Residents of other provinces in China 3561 (46.0) 818 (23.0) 10.498 0.015   
Gender Male 2539 (32.8) 633 (24.9)     
  Female 5202 (67.2) 1241 (23.9) 0.074 0.300   
Age-group (years) 16–29 3166 (40.9) 889 (28.1)    1.36 (1.05, 1.76) 0.020
  30–49 3985 (51.5) 875 (22.0)    1.19 (0.95, 1.48) 0.133
  50+ 590 (7.6) 110 (18.6) 46.820 < 0.001 1  
Marital status Never-married 2975 (38.4) 862 (29.0)    1.47 (1.26, 1.73) < 0.001
  Othersa 347 (4.5) 106 (30.5)    1.72 (1.35, 2.19) < 0.001
  Married 4419 (57.1) 906 (20.5) 77.515 < 0.001 1  
Employment status Employed 5846 (75.5) 1360 (23.3)     
  Unemployed 476 (6.1) 116 (24.4)     
  Students 1419 (18.3) 398 (28.0) 14.251 0.001   
Education Middle school and below 1269 (16.4) 313 (24.7)     
  Associate’s degree and above 6472 (83.6) 1561 (24.1) 0.172 0.678   
Perceived severity of the epidemic in current residence place Severe 2548 (32.9) 645 (25.3)     
  Not severe 5193 (67.1) 1229 (23.7) 2.529 0.112   
Having family members or close relatives infected with SARS-CoV-2b Yes 94 (1.2) 34 (36.2)    1.64 (1.06, 2.53) 0.026
  No 7647 (98.8) 1840 (24.1) 7.420 0.006 1  
Having colleagues, friends or classmates infected with SARS-CoV-2b Yes 736 (9.5) 229 (31.1)    1.62 (1.36, 1.92)  
  No 7005 (90.5) 1645 (23.5) 21.137 < 0.001 1 < 0.001
Having infected neighbors of the same community/village Yes 829 (10.7) 221 (26.7)     
  No 6912 (89.3) 1653 (23.9) 3.037 0.081   
  1. a“Others” included re-married, co-habiting, separated, divorced, and widowed
  2. bSARS-CoV-2: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2