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Table 2 Hierarchical linear regression coefficients for the psychopathological symptoms (N = 119)

From: Prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and related psychopathological symptoms among patients with COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic

Variables Model of generalized anxiety Model of state anxiety Model of depressive symptoms
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Socio-demographics characteristics
 Age 0.22* 0.01* 0.17 0.17* 0.18* 0.05 0.10 0.07 0.03 0.03 0.19* 0.21* 0.14 0.12 0.14
 Sex (male) −0.07 −0.13 −0.15 −0.17* − 0.16 −0.06 − 0.12 − 0.11 − 0.10 − 0.09 − 0.10 − 0.13 − 0.18* − 0.19* − 0.17
 Ethnic group (Han) −0.05 − 0.17 − 0.04 − 0.07 − 0.08 0.07 0.03 0.01 −0.02 −0.04 −0.01 −0.03 −0.01 −0.04 −0.07
 Education level 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.05 0.04 −0.04 0.00 0.11 0.13 0.12 −0.02 0.00 0.04 0.05 0.04
 Annual income −0.02 − 0.00 − 0.07 − 0.07 − 0.05 − 0.06 − 0.04 − 0.08 − 0.10 − 0.07 − 0.08 − 0.07 − 0.14 − 0.13 − 0.10
 Community risk 0.23* 0.16* 0.13 0.15 0.16 0.14 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.17 0.13 0.07 0.07 0.09
 Infection type −0.03 − 0.04 −0.03 − 0.02 − 0.04 − 0.07 − 0.09 − 0.07 − 0.04 − 0.05 − 0.03 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.03 − 0.05
 History of mental disorder (yes) 0.27** 1.19* 0.09 0.09 0.14 0.26** 0.20* 0.08 0.07 0.12 0.23* 0.21* 0.04 0.03 0.11
COVID-19-related factors
 Exposure to related news 0.01 0.03 0.07 0.06   0.04 0.06 0.05 0.04   0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01
 Perceived impact of pandemic 0.19* 0.17* 0.15 0.16   0.45*** 0.37*** 0.32*** 0.34***   0.20* 0.16 0.12 0.13
Psychological factors
 Loneliness    0.43*** 0.37*** 0.37***    0.33*** 0.29*** 0.26**    0.48*** 0.44*** 0.42***
 Hope    0.27** 0.22* 0.23*    −0.09 −0.01 0.02    0.23* 0.24* 0.26*
Coping strategies
 Active coping     0.10 0.11     −0.22 − 0.22     0.02 0.03
 Avoidant coping     0.21* 0.22*     0.16 0.18     0.25* 0.26**
 Emotion-focused coping    0.24* 0.20     0.11 0.08     −0.03 −0.09
 Acceptance coping     −0.40 − 0.43**     −0.17 −0.21     −0.15 −0.20
Social support
 Family support      −0.13      −0.21      −0.21
 Friends support      0.006      −0.10      −0.08
 Significant other support     0.21      0.32*      0.37*
Adjusted R2 0.10* 0.12 0.28 0.33 0.33 0.03 0.21 0.31 0.37 0.38 0.06 0.09 0.27 0.29 0.31
R2   0.02 0.16*** 0.06* −0.01   0.17*** 0.10*** 0.06* 0.01   0.02 0.19*** 0.02 0.01
Variables Model of PTSS/PTSD Model of somatization Model of interpersonal sensitivity
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Socio-demographics characteristics
 Age 0.28** 0.29** 0.22** 0.22** 0.23** 0.14 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.10 −0.01 0.00 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.05
 Sex (male) −0.12 −0.14 −0.20* −0.21* −0.21* −0.21* −0.22* −0.25** −0.30** −0.30** −0.07 −0.08 −0.12 −0.12 −0.11
 Ethnic group (Han) −0.02 −0.03 0.01 −0.01 −0.02 0.13 0.12 0.14 0.11 0.10 −0.02 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.05
 Education level 0.07 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.06 −0.04 −0.04 −0.01 −0.02 −0.00 −0.15 −0.14 −0.10 −0.08 −0.09
 Annual income −0.03 −0.02 −0.07 −0.06 −0.06 −0.01 −0.00 −0.05 −0.00 −0.01 −0.05 −0.05 −0.11 −0.12 −0.11
 Community risk 0.19* 0.17 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.13 0.12 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.16 0.14 0.09 0.09 0.10
 Infection type 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.09 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.03
 History of mental disorder (yes) 0.37*** 0.36*** 0.23** 0.22* 0.25* 0.03 0.02 −0.09 − 0.07 − 0.05 0.47*** 0.46*** 0.30*** 0.28** 0.31**
COVID-19-related factors
 Exposure to related news 0.07 0.05 0.07 0.07   0.02 0.02 0.06 0.06   0.02 0.01 0.05 0.04
 Perceived impact of pandemic 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14   0.05 0.02 0.01 −0.00   0.10 0.06 0.04 0.05
Psychological factors
 Loneliness    0.36*** 0.34*** 0.34***    0.31** 0.24* 0.23*    0.44*** 0.42*** 0.41***
 Hope    0.33*** 0.28** 0.29**    0.15 0.12 0.13    0.19* 0.12 0.13
Coping strategies
 Active coping     0.08 0.08     0.31* 0.28     −0.01 − 0.01
 Avoidant coping     0.13 0.13     0.24* 0.25*     0.15 0.15
 Emotion-focused coping    0.07 0.04     −0.01 −0.08     0.22 0.20
 Acceptance coping     −0.14 − 0.15     −0.37* −0.36     −0.18 −0.20
Social supports
 Family support      −0.03      0.07      −0.10
 Friends support      −0.06      −0.29      −0.06
 Significant other support     0.14      0.32      0.17
Adjusted R2 0.19*** 0.20 0.34 0.34 0.32 0.05 0.03 0.10 0.14 0.15 0.21*** 0.21 0.37 0.39 0.38
R2   0.01 0.15*** −0.01 −0.01   −0.02 0.07** 0.04 0.01   − 0.00 0.15*** 0.03 −0.01
Variables Model of hostility Model of paranoid ideation Model of psychoticism
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Socio-demographics characteristics
Age 0.02 0.04 −0.01 −0.01 −0.01 0.06 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.01
Sex (male) 0.00 −0.00 −0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.00 − 0.01 −0.06 −0.08 −0.07 0.02 0.01 −0.03 −0.06 −0.05
Ethnic group (Han) −0.10 −0.11 −0.10 −0.12 −0.12 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.02 −0.02 − 0.03 − 0.01 − 0.04 − 0.04
Education level −0.15 −0.13 −0.11 −0.09 −0.08 −0.13 −0.11 −0.11 −0.11 −0.12 −0.13 −0.12 −0.09 −0.09 −0.11
Annual income 0.02 0.02 −0.03 −0.03 −0.03 0.02 0.02 −0.04 −0.03 −0.01 0.02 0.03 −0.03 −0.01 0.01
Community risk 0.12 0.09 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.08 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.10 0.08 0.03 0.04 0.05
Infection type −0.01 −0.02 −0.01 0.01 −0.01 −0.00 −0.01 −0.01 −0.01 −0.02 −0.09 −0.10 −0.09 −0.09 −0.08
History of mental disorder (yes) 0.61*** 0.59*** 0.48*** 0.47*** 0.48*** 0.68*** 0.66*** 0.53*** 0.54*** 0.58*** 0.72*** 0.71*** 0.57*** 0.58*** 0.62***
COVID-19-related factors               
Exposure to related news −0.07 −0.07 −0.04 −0.04   −0.03 −0.05 −0.02 −0.03   0.00 −0.01 0.03 0.02
Perceived impact of pandemic 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.05   0.13 0.11 0.11 0.12   0.09 0.06 0.03 0.04
Psychological factors
Loneliness    0.31*** 0.27*** 0.27**    0.36*** 0.33*** 0.32***    0.37*** 0.33*** 0.33***
Hope    0.14 0.10 0.10    0.25** 0.21* 0.22*    0.19** 0.17* 0.18*
Coping strategies
Active coping     0.00 −0.01     0.10 0.10     0.12 0.15
Avoidant coping     0.20* 0.20*     0.07 0.07     0.21** 0.22**
Emotion-focused coping    0.20 0.16     0.16 0.14     0.05 0.05
Acceptance coping     −0.25 −0.24     −0.23 −0.26     −0.25* −0.30*
Social supports                
Family support      0.05      −0.14      −0.18
Friends support      −0.12      −0.01      0.17
Significant other support     0.14      0.17      0.02
Adjusted R2 0.37*** 0.37 0.45 0.49 0.48 0.40*** 0.41 0.53 0.54 0.53 0.48*** 0.48 0.60 0.63 0.62
R2   0.01 0.07** 0.04* −0.01   0.01 0.12*** 0.00 −0.01   −0.00 0.12*** 0.03* −0.00
  1. Note. The regression coefficients in this table were standardized regression coefficients. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001